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Detecting Deception. The Art of Behavioural Intelligence Gathering. Kieran Milne Managing Director, MJM Investigations. Detecting Deceit: the hidden facts. The ability to detect deception and fraud is vital to understanding and preparing for risk management Some facts:.

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Detecting Deception

The Art of Behavioural Intelligence Gathering

Kieran Milne

Managing Director, MJM Investigations

slide2

Detecting Deceit: the hidden facts

The ability to detect deception and fraud is vital to understanding and preparing for risk management

Some facts:

  • There has been an increased incidence and variety of employee fraud and corruption – In business this = $$$$
  • As a result, risk control has become an important element of the management and governance in any business
  • Identifying a deceptive employee could prove vital as a grass roots procedure in managing risks of all kinds to business.
  • Today we will examine some of the ways to detect deception generally.
  • There is still much debate!!!! Detecting deception remains a difficult task and sometimes it is more about information gathering.
slide3

Detecting Deceit: the hidden facts

Areas to discuss - Behavioural Intelligence Gathering

  • Deceptive v unreceptive person
  • Gaining information from an unreceptive and / or deceptive person
  • Communicating to and gaining loyalty from employees
  • Questioning techniques used for screening employees
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Detecting Deceit

The Human Lie Detector

  • The ability to detect/identify deception is essential not only in the criminal context, but in business.
  • Throughout history, people have sought ways to test the truthfulness of others
    • Lying requires the deceiver to keep the facts straight and make the story believeable
    • We should note that when individuals tell the truth, they often make every effort to ensure other people understand
    • Consequently, people unwittingly signal deception with both nonverbal and verbal cues
  • You, as individuals are capable of detecting deceipt, though:
    • Identifying behavioural inconsistencies
    • Behavioural evaluation training and techniques
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Detecting Deceit

Assessing deception : What to look for ???

  • Checking their Facial expressions
  • Identifying Body language
  • Listening to Speech rate, volume or pitch changes
  • Listening to how something is said
  • Inconsistent Emotional states
  • Talking off-the-topic

Let‘s take a closer look.

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Detecting Deceit: Facial Expressions

Facial expressions are non-verbal signals exhibited by a person that can be equivalent to a common word or phrase

e.g. a nod can be yes or no.

Liars try to hide their facial expressions or mislead the interviewer by showing false expressions; yet involuntary emotions may ‘leak.’

Two areas in which are regularly examined for such “leaks”, include:

  • The Eyes
  • Mouth and Breathing
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Detecting Deceit: Facial Expressions

The Eyes

  • Eye contact : yes or no??
  • When people hear or see something they disagree with or do not fully support, their eyelids tend to close longer than a normal blink.
  • Rapid blinking can signal a sensitive topic

Mouth and Breathing

  • People who attempt to conceal information often breathe faster taking a series of short breaths followed by one long deep breath, suggesting increased anxiety levels.
  • Higher stress levels often cause a dry mouth, resulting in repeated clearing of the throat, cracking of the voice, or jumping of the Adam‘s Apple.
  • A tense mouth with pursed lips may represent extreme distress and signify that speakers literally restrain themsleves emotionally and verbally.
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Detecting Deceit: Body Language

Observing a Liar through their actions

  • Physical expression will often be limited, with few arm and hand movements.
  • Hands, arms and legs pull in toward body
  • The person is reluctant to face their opposite and may turn head/body away.
  • The person‘s hand might go up to his face or throat, especially to the mouth.
  • If the person is trying to appear casual and relaxed about their answer, they may shrug a little.
  • The person may point their finger at the person they are trying to convince.
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Detecting Deceit: Emotional States

A lying person’s emotions may be limited to the mouth area when the person is feigning certain emotions, rather than the whole face.

  • The timing is off between gestures and words
  • The head moves in a mechanical way, without regard to emphasis, indicating a conscious movement.
  • Gestures don‘t match the verbal message
  • The timing and duration of emotional gestures will seem off.
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Detecting Deceit: Verbal Cues

Verbal content and listening to how something is said

  • Deceitful responses to questions regarding beliefs and attitudes take longer to create and move to words.
  • Reactions are out of proportion to the questions or the person may repeat points already made.
  • Statements sound like questions, indicating the person is seeking reassurance.
  • Voice, head and eyes lift at the end of their statement.
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Detecting Deceit

You cannot prevent someone from lying, but you can at least, observe and catalog behaviours that indicate deception.

Some common tactics applied in the workplace:

  • Scenario 1: The objective here is to introduce a scenario similar to what you suspect is going on, using specifics:Suspicion: You suspect one of your salespeople has lied to a customer in order to make the sale.Question: Jim, I‘m wondering if you could help me with something. It‘s come to my attention that someone in the sales department has been misrepresenting our products to customers. How do you think we can clear this up? If the person is innocent of the charges, he‘s likely to offer his advice and be pleased that you sought their opinion. If the person is guilty, they will see, uncomfortable and will assure you that they never do anything like that. Either way, it opens the door to probe further.
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Detecting Deceit: the hidden facts

  • Scenario 2: The objective here is to introduce a scenario similar to what you suspect is going on, but using general terms.Suspicion: You suspect a co worker of bad-mouthing you to your boss.Question: It‘s amazing all the backstabbing that goes on around here, isn‘t it? And these people doing it think that it won‘t get back to the person involved. A change in subject is highly indicative of guilt. However if the person you ask finds your question interesting and they are innnocent, they might begin a conversation about it since they are unafraid to discuss the subject.
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Unreceptive People: gaining access

If you pay attention to body language, you can spot signals of how receptive (how ready to listen and how open to your ideas) your counterpart is.

Facial expressions and eyesReceptive: smiles, much eye contact, more interest in the person than what is being saidUnreceptive: no eye contact or squinted eyes, jaw muscles clenched, cheeks twitching with tension, head turned slightly away from the speaker so the eye contact is a sidelong glance

Arms and handsReceptive: arms spread, hand open on table, relaxed in the lap or on the arms of a chair, hands touching the faceUnreceptive: hands clenched, arms crossed in front of the chest, hand over the mouth or rubbing the back of the neck

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Unreceptive People: gaining access

Legs and FeetReceptive: Sitting - legs together, or one in front of the other slightly (as if at the starting line of a race). Standing – weight evenly distributed, body tilted toward the speakerUnreceptive: Standing - crossed legs, pointing away from the speaker. Standing or Sitting – legs and feet pointing toward the exit.

TorsoReceptive: Sitting on the edge of the chair, unbuttoning suit coat, body tilted toward the speakerUnreceptive: Leaning back in the chair, suit coat remains buttoned

Q: You need to conduct an interview with a staff member. You know they are not going to be happy about it. What physical environment are you looking for at interview?

slide15

Protecting your Company: gaining loyalty

Organisational loyalty is more important than ever. The lifetime contract expired long ago, and more people – especially your best people – are more likely to pay attention to their careers than to you, their employer.

  • A loyal workforce saves money right? How?
  • When firms help workers acquire new skills that support their professional advancement, they often win those workers‘ committment – and attract loyal new employees. Employers can promote company loyalty by helping people grow out of their jobs – and ideally into new ones within the company.
  • You need to know what they want though right?
  • Gain their trust and you will find out what they want !
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Screening: discover the truth

If you are experiencing disloyalty or suspect someone is being deceiving, several techniques can be used to discover the truth.

These investigative techniques can be used for screening current employees, new employees or in a variety of situations.

  • Discussion of three common techniques:
    • Behavioural Assessment Model
    • Scientific Content Analysis
    • The Cognitive Interview

We will focus on the Cognitive Interview Technique

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Screening: BAI

The Behavioural Assessment Interview (BAI) is a 30-45 minute long structured interview designed to elicit verbal and non-verbal behaviours and attitudinal characteristics of the individual in a non-accusatory manner.

  • Initially, questions concern only the subject‘s background. This is done to establish a relationship with the subject and to determine a baseline for behavioural cues of interest e.g. When they show sadness, anger, happiness etc
  • The second phase involves investigative questions used to assess the individual‘s opportunity, motivation, and involvement with the issue at hand.
  • Finally, the investigator or interviewer uses behaviour-provoking questions to elicit differential verbal and non-verbal behaviours.
slide18

Screening: SCAN

The Scientific Content Analysis (SCAN) probes the notion that people don’t like telling direct lies, usually from fear of being caught out.Therefore, their responses can be phrased in such a way that disassociates themselves from the issue, rather than directly denying it.

  • SCAN will show you whether the subject is truthful or deceptive; what information the subject in concealing; and whether or not the subject was involved in the subject matter.
  • It does not involve reading body langauge, but rather reading the subject‘s own writing
  • SCAN involves looking at every word in the subject‘s statement – the pronouns and connections, the subjective time, and the changes in language.
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Screening: The Cognitive Interview

The cognitive interview involves the skill of helping someone to remember the details of an event.

  • The traditional interview tries to elicit information by asking many good questions; they target a question for each content area that the interviewer wants to address.
  • The cognitive interview the questionless interview?
  • The goal is to ask as few questions as possible so that the interview subject can give you long, narrative responses that contains more information.
  • Elicit v Extract.
  • A good interviewer tries to create a social environment so the subject generates information without having to wait for answers to be asked.
  • More open ended questions should be asked, but not interruped with a follow-up question.
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Detecting Deception

Key Take aways

  • There is no sure fire 100% indicators
  • Evidence is always the key
  • Take your time in any investigative process
  • Keep check on your own behaviours
  • QUESTIONS ??