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HW: Read WORKBOOK pages 16-17 and complete page 18. TODAY’S TITLE: #15 The Fertile Crescent TODAY’S GOAL: SWBAT explain how civilization, farming, and industry developed in SE Asia and identify the characteristics of civilization.

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bell work

HW: Read WORKBOOK pages 16-17 and complete page 18.

TODAY’S TITLE: #15 The Fertile Crescent

TODAY’S GOAL: SWBAT explain how civilization, farming, and industry developed in SE Asia and identify the characteristics of civilization.

WAR: Read the top of page 54 under “If You Were There…” and answer the following question- “How can you control the waters of the river?”

Bell Work
pre ap notes

Make a Cause and Effect Chart in your WOW section. Skim Section 1 of Chapter 3 and fill in the chart as you go.

Pre-AP Notes
section 1 geography of the fertile crescent

People settled near water so crops could grow

One region that was ideal for settlement sat between 2 major rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates

This area of rich soil was called….




Section 1: Geography of the Fertile Crescent
what is the land between the rivers

Mesopotamia is Greek for “between 2 rivers”

Mesopotamia lies between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

It has 2 parts:

-the North is a plateau bordered by mountains

- the South is a flat plain

Mesopotamia is part of a larger area called the Fertile Crescent, which has VERY rich soil

What is The Land Between the Rivers?
how did the first civilization rise

H-G groups first settled in Mesopotamia 12,000 years ago

The floods of the Tigris and Euphrates brought silt, a mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks which the land great for farming

1st farming settlements formed in 7000 BC

How did the first civilization rise?
what makes a civilization

To be a civilization, a society must have the following:

Central government


Division of labor

Social levels (hierarchy)


Advanced farms

Use of metal tools

Writing system

Religious system


What makes a Civilization?
what was mesopotamian farming like

Received very little rain and flooding of the rivers could be dangerous

Farmers needed to control the rivers’ flow

Used irrigation, a way of supplying water to an area of land

Dug basins and canals that brought water to the fields and built up river banks to hold back floods

What was Mesopotamian farming like?
how did irrigation affect the civilization

Irrigation increased the amount of food farmers grew and provided water for domesticated animals

Produced a food surplus, or more than they needed

Fewer people needed to farm because there was so much food

How did irrigation affect the civilization?
how did irrigation affect the civilization1

People were more free to do other jobs

Division of labor formed (arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task or job)

Society could accomplish more tasks such as building and construction

Consequently, we need rules and structure to complete tasks

We need a government!!

How did irrigation affect the civilization?
how did cities form

Settlements grew in size and complexity

Cities began to appear between 4000 and 3000 BC

Society in Mesopotamia is still mostly based on farming, but cities became the political, religious, cultural, and economic centers of civilization

How did cities form?
reg wio

Draw a chart like the one below. We will fill in the Causes and Effects of the Fertile Crescent together.

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HW: Finish today’s WIO and Study for Mini-Quiz for tomorrow!


TODAY’S GOAL: SWBAT determine the impact of key figures on Mesopotamian history

WAR: Do your period’s assignment!

REG- Answer this question- How did irrigation help farmers?

Pre-AP: Choose ONE of the following questions to answer

What effects did irrigation have on farming settlements?

How might big construction projects lead to laws and government?

Bell Work
section 2 the rise of sumer

Sumer was the world’s first official civilization

Settled in Mesopotamia and created an advanced society

Section 2: The Rise of Sumer
what were the city states of sumer like

Most people were farmers who lived in rural, or countryside areas

Sumer had urban, or city areas as well that were the centers of their civilizations and had over 100,000 people living there by 2000 BC

Rural Urban

What were the City-states of Sumer like?
what were the city states of sumer like cont

Sumerian cities soon became city-states, which consisted of the city and the countryside around it

City-states fought each other to get more farmland

They had strong armies and walls to protect their land

Kish, Uruk, Ur were examples of very strong city-states

What were the city-states of sumer like (cont)
how did the akkadian empire rise

Lived north of the Sumerian city-states and were peaceful in the beginning

2300 BC- Sargon built a new capital called Akkad and had a permanent army

He defeated all the city-states of Sumer and conquered northern Mesopotamia

He established the world’s 1stempire, land with different territories and people under single rule

How did the Akkadian Empire Rise?
how did the akkadian empire fall

Sargon ruled for 50 more years

After his death, the empire only lasted a century more because it was invaded by outsiders

Chaos followed for 100 more years

The Sumerian city-state of Ur eventually became the more powerful and rebuilt stability in the region

Sumer’s #1 again! 

How did the Akkadian Empire fall?

Draw a gravestone for SARGON with the following requirements:

Here Lies… (Insert name)



He is remembered for…(list at least 2 things)

Then draw at least 2 symbols that represent his achievements.

how did religion shape sumerian society

Religion played a role almost all aspects of life

The Sumerians practiced polytheism, the worship of MANY gods

-Examples of gods: Enlil, Enki, Inanna, Utu, Nanna, Shamash (sun god shown below!)

Each city-state had a special god as their protector

Believed their gods controlled natural events like weather and illness

Success in life depended on how you worshipped the gods

How did Religion shape Sumerian Society?
how did religion shape sumerian society1

Priests, people who performed religious ceremonies, had great power

People relied on them to interpret the gods’ wishes

Priests made offerings to gods in temples and performed religious ceremonies

How did Religion shape Sumerian Society?
what was the sumerian social order
What was the Sumerian Social Order?

Social Hierarchy: the division of society by rank or class

what were men and women like in sumer

Men held political power and made laws

Women took care of the home and children (ladies, get used to hearing this!)

Education was usually only for men, but some upper-class women received it as well

Women could be priestesses if they were educated

-example: the priestess Enheduanna wrote hymns. She is the first known female writer in history!

What were Men and Women like in Sumer?
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HW: Read WORKBOOK pages 22-23 and complete page 24.

TODAY’S TITLE: #18 Sumerian Achievements

TODAY’S GOAL: SWBAT summarize important achievements of Sumer.

WAR: Answer ONE of the following questions

Why were scribes important?

How was cuneiform used to express ideas?

Bell Work
section 3 sumerian achievements

The Sumerians developed many different inventions and ideas that have influenced us today.

When we discuss achievements, we usually divide it by subjects very similar to what you have in school (literature, science, math, art, etc.)

Section 3: Sumerian Achievements
what were the sumerian achievements in writing

They invented the FIRST writing system called cuneiform

Used styluses to make wedge-like shapes on clay tablets

Earlier written communication used pictographs, or picture symbols

Cuneiform used symbols to represent syllables of words, and would combine the symbols to form words

What were the Sumerian achievements in writing?
sumerian writing cont

Cuneiform was first used to keep business records

Scribes, or writers, would keep track of business and had a high place in society because they were the only ones who knew cuneiform

Later used cuneiform to write history, law, grammar, and math

Also wrote stories, proverbs, songs, and epics, which are long poems that tell heroic stories

example: The Epic of Gilgamesh

Sumerian Writing (cont)
what were sumerian achievements in technology

The wheel

The potter’s wheel for sculpting

The plow

The “falling water” clock

Sails on boats

Underground sewers

Learned to use bronze for stronger tools and weapons

Makeup and glass jewelry

What were Sumerian achievements in technology?
what were sumerian advances in math

Number system based on 60

360 degree circle

12 month calendar

Areas of rectangles and triangles

What were Sumerian Advances in Math?
what were sumerian achievements in science

Observing the natural world using lists and recordings

Medicine advancements such as healing drugs and cataloging treatments for specific problems

What were Sumerian Achievements in Science?
what were sumerian achievements in architecture

Architecture is the science of building

Large palaces for Sumerian rulers

Large and small houses for others

Used mud bricks

Made ziggurats, pyramid-shaped Sumerian temples, were in each city

Used outdoor staircases and columns

What were Sumerian Achievements in Architecture?
what were sumerian achievements in art

Statues of gods

Used ivory and rare woods

Sumerian pottery is not known for its beauty!

Jewelry made of gold, silver, and gems

Cylinder seals to imprint designs into clay

Musical instruments include reed pipes, drums, tambourines, and lyres

Song and dance were popular forms of entertainment

What were Sumerian Achievements in Art?

Pre-AP: A commercial for a museum exhibit that showcases a Sumerian achievement.

6- Unit 2- Ch 3- Museum Commercial.docx

REG: An advertisement that persuades people that their certain Sumerian achievement was the most influential.

6- Unit 2- Ch 3- Advertisement of Sumerian Achievement.docx

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HW: Read WORKBOOK pages 25-26 and complete page 27.

TITLE: #19 Later People Part 1

Goal: SWBAT explain how one culture can influence another.

WAR: Read the “If You Were There” paragraph on page 72 and answer the question: How would you advise the king?

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section 4 later peoples of the fertile crescent

FYI: “Peoples” is not a typo! It is an actual word!

The city-state of Ur began to lose power by 2000 BC because of invasion.

Other invaders began to move into Mesopotamia

Section 4: Later Peoples of the Fertile Crescent
how did babylon rise to power

Located on the Euphrates River near present-day Baghdad, Iraq

1800 BC- had a very powerful government

1792 BC- Hammurabi becomes king of Babylon

He is Babylon’s greatest monarch, ruler of a kingdom or empire

How Did Babylon Rise to Power?
who is hammurabi

Brilliant war leader

Brought all of Mesopotamia under his rule through the use of his powerful army

His empire became known as the Babylonian Empire

He was a good ruler because he oversaw building and irrigation projects, improved the tax system, and increased wealth and trade

Ruled for 42 years and made Babylon the most important city in Mesopotamia

He is best known for his law code!

Who is Hammurabi?
what is hammurabi s code

It is a set of 282 laws that dealt with daily life

Contained laws on trade, loans, theft, marriage, injury, and murder

Specific crimes had specific penalties

Social class did matter

example: injuring a rich man had a bigger penalty than injuring a poor man (not fair!)

Was written down for all to see

What is Hammurabi’s Code?
hammurabi s law code examples

“If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.”

“If he break another man’s bone, his bone shall be broken.”

“If a builder builds a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner, then that builder shall be put to death.”

Hammurabi’s law Code examples
what were other invasions of mesopotamia

After Hammurabi’s death, the Babylonian Empire lost power and fell.

Other civilizations began to move into the Fertile Crescent and fight over land

examples: The Hittites, Kassites, Assyrians, and Chaldeans

What were other invasions of Mesopotamia?
who were the hittites and kassites

The Hittites built their kingdom in Asia Minor (present-day Turkey)

The first to use iron, which made stronger weapons, and they used the chariot, a wheeled horse-drawn cart used in battle.

Captured Babylon in 1595 BC

Kingdom fell when king was assassinated

The Kassites overtook Babylon and ruled it for almost 400 years

Who were the Hittites and Kassites?
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HW: Complete Study Guide

TITLE: #20 Later People Part 2

WAR: Do you think Hammurabi’s law code was fair? Why or why not?

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who were the assyrians

1200s BC- the Assyrians from northern Meso. take Babylon, but were soon invaded by others

300 years later, the Assyrians recover strength and begin to conquer all of the Fertile Crescent, parts of Asia Minor, and Egypt.

Capital city was called Nineveh

Who were the Assyrians?
why were the assyrians so strong

Used iron weapons and chariots

Army was well-organized

Were fierce in battle

Harsh punishments for law-breakers

Ruled their large empire by having local leaders who collected taxes, enforced laws, and raised troops for the army

Built roads to connect the empire

Why were the Assyrians so strong?
who were the chaldeans

652 BC- Assyrian Empire became weak because of civil wars within the empire

The Chaldeans attacked the empire and in 612 BC destroyed Nineveh and the Assyrian Empire

The Chaldeans set up own empire with a rebuilt Babylon as their capital

Who were the Chaldeans?
who was nebuchadnezzar who

Most famous Chaldean king

Rebuilt Babylon as the richest city in the world

Built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (One of the 7 Ancient Wonders of the World) as a gift to his depressed wife

Who was Nebuchadnezzar? (who?!)
what was babylon like under the chaldeans

Babylon was a major stop on a trade route b/w the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea

Babylon was a center of trade, Sumerian culture, and science (astronomy)

They tracked stars and weather events, created a calendar, and solved complex geometry problems

Trade helped the spread of ideas…how?!

Chaldean Empire fell to the Persians in 539 BC

What was Babylon Like under the Chaldeans?
what was phoenicia like

Located at the western end of the Fertile Crescent near present-day Lebanon

Was a wealthy trading society

Sits on the Mediterranean Sea

Had few resources, but had cedar, a type of timber and valuable in trade

Overland trade routes were blocked by mountains, so they used the sea for trade transport

What was Phoenicia Like?
how did the phoenicians expand their trade

Became expert sailors

Built harbors (ex: Tyre)

Built fast ships that traveled to Egypt, Greece, Sicily, and Spain

Created colonies along trade routes (ex: Carthage in N. Africa)

Traded cedar, silverwork, ivory carvings, slaves, glass-blown objects, purple dye

Grew VERY wealthy

How did the Phoenicians expand their trade?
what was the phoenicians most important achievement

The alphabet!!!

An alphabet is a set of letters than can be combined to form words

Made writing much easier

Our English alphabet is based on the Phoenician one

Other civilizations such as Greece and Rome also used it and changed it

What was the Phoenicians’ most important achievement?