HW: Read WORKBOOK pages 16-17 and complete page 18. TODAY’S TITLE: #15 The Fertile Crescent TODAY’S GOAL: SWBAT explain how civilization, farming, and industry developed in SE Asia and identify the characteristics of civilization.
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TODAY’S TITLE: #15 The Fertile Crescent
TODAY’S GOAL: SWBAT explain how civilization, farming, and industry developed in SE Asia and identify the characteristics of civilization.
WAR: Read the top of page 54 under “If You Were There…” and answer the following question- “How can you control the waters of the river?”Bell Work
Make a Cause and Effect Chart in your WOW section. Skim Section 1 of Chapter 3 and fill in the chart as you go.Pre-AP Notes
Mesopotamia lies between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
It has 2 parts:
-the North is a plateau bordered by mountains
- the South is a flat plain
Mesopotamia is part of a larger area called the Fertile Crescent, which has VERY rich soilWhat is The Land Between the Rivers?
The floods of the Tigris and Euphrates brought silt, a mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks which the land great for farming
1st farming settlements formed in 7000 BCHow did the first civilization rise?
Division of labor
Social levels (hierarchy)
Use of metal tools
CalendarWhat makes a Civilization?
Farmers needed to control the rivers’ flow
Used irrigation, a way of supplying water to an area of land
Dug basins and canals that brought water to the fields and built up river banks to hold back floodsWhat was Mesopotamian farming like?
Irrigation increased the amount of food farmers grew and provided water for domesticated animals
Produced a food surplus, or more than they needed
Fewer people needed to farm because there was so much foodHow did irrigation affect the civilization?
Division of labor formed (arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task or job)
Society could accomplish more tasks such as building and construction
Consequently, we need rules and structure to complete tasks
We need a government!!How did irrigation affect the civilization?
Draw a chart like the one below. We will fill in the Causes and Effects of the Fertile Crescent together.REG WIO
TODAY’S TITLE: #16 RISE OF SUMER
TODAY’S GOAL: SWBAT determine the impact of key figures on Mesopotamian history
WAR: Do your period’s assignment!
REG- Answer this question- How did irrigation help farmers?
Pre-AP: Choose ONE of the following questions to answer
What effects did irrigation have on farming settlements?
How might big construction projects lead to laws and government?Bell Work
Sumer had urban, or city areas as well that were the centers of their civilizations and had over 100,000 people living there by 2000 BC
Rural UrbanWhat were the City-states of Sumer like?
Sumerian cities soon became city-states, which consisted of the city and the countryside around it
City-states fought each other to get more farmland
They had strong armies and walls to protect their land
Kish, Uruk, Ur were examples of very strong city-statesWhat were the city-states of sumer like (cont)
2300 BC- Sargon built a new capital called Akkad and had a permanent army
He defeated all the city-states of Sumer and conquered northern Mesopotamia
He established the world’s 1stempire, land with different territories and people under single ruleHow did the Akkadian Empire Rise?
After his death, the empire only lasted a century more because it was invaded by outsiders
Chaos followed for 100 more years
The Sumerian city-state of Ur eventually became the more powerful and rebuilt stability in the region
Sumer’s #1 again! How did the Akkadian Empire fall?
The Sumerians practiced polytheism, the worship of MANY gods
-Examples of gods: Enlil, Enki, Inanna, Utu, Nanna, Shamash (sun god shown below!)
Each city-state had a special god as their protector
Believed their gods controlled natural events like weather and illness
Success in life depended on how you worshipped the godsHow did Religion shape Sumerian Society?
People relied on them to interpret the gods’ wishes
Priests made offerings to gods in temples and performed religious ceremoniesHow did Religion shape Sumerian Society?
Social Hierarchy: the division of society by rank or class
Women took care of the home and children (ladies, get used to hearing this!)
Education was usually only for men, but some upper-class women received it as well
Women could be priestesses if they were educated
-example: the priestess Enheduanna wrote hymns. She is the first known female writer in history!What were Men and Women like in Sumer?
TODAY’S TITLE: #18 Sumerian Achievements
TODAY’S GOAL: SWBAT summarize important achievements of Sumer.
WAR: Answer ONE of the following questions
Why were scribes important?
How was cuneiform used to express ideas?Bell Work
The Sumerians developed many different inventions and ideas that have influenced us today.
When we discuss achievements, we usually divide it by subjects very similar to what you have in school (literature, science, math, art, etc.)Section 3: Sumerian Achievements
Used styluses to make wedge-like shapes on clay tablets
Earlier written communication used pictographs, or picture symbols
Cuneiform used symbols to represent syllables of words, and would combine the symbols to form wordsWhat were the Sumerian achievements in writing?
Scribes, or writers, would keep track of business and had a high place in society because they were the only ones who knew cuneiform
Later used cuneiform to write history, law, grammar, and math
Also wrote stories, proverbs, songs, and epics, which are long poems that tell heroic stories
example: The Epic of GilgameshSumerian Writing (cont)
Medicine advancements such as healing drugs and cataloging treatments for specific problemsWhat were Sumerian Achievements in Science?
Used ivory and rare woods
Sumerian pottery is not known for its beauty!
Jewelry made of gold, silver, and gems
Cylinder seals to imprint designs into clay
Musical instruments include reed pipes, drums, tambourines, and lyres
Song and dance were popular forms of entertainmentWhat were Sumerian Achievements in Art?
Pre-AP: A commercial for a museum exhibit that showcases a Sumerian achievement.
6- Unit 2- Ch 3- Museum Commercial.docx
REG: An advertisement that persuades people that their certain Sumerian achievement was the most influential.
6- Unit 2- Ch 3- Advertisement of Sumerian Achievement.docxWIO
TITLE: #19 Later People Part 1
Goal: SWBAT explain how one culture can influence another.
WAR: Read the “If You Were There” paragraph on page 72 and answer the question: How would you advise the king?Bell Work
The city-state of Ur began to lose power by 2000 BC because of invasion.
Other invaders began to move into MesopotamiaSection 4: Later Peoples of the Fertile Crescent
1800 BC- had a very powerful government
1792 BC- Hammurabi becomes king of Babylon
He is Babylon’s greatest monarch, ruler of a kingdom or empireHow Did Babylon Rise to Power?
Brought all of Mesopotamia under his rule through the use of his powerful army
His empire became known as the Babylonian Empire
He was a good ruler because he oversaw building and irrigation projects, improved the tax system, and increased wealth and trade
Ruled for 42 years and made Babylon the most important city in Mesopotamia
He is best known for his law code!Who is Hammurabi?
Contained laws on trade, loans, theft, marriage, injury, and murder
Specific crimes had specific penalties
Social class did matter
example: injuring a rich man had a bigger penalty than injuring a poor man (not fair!)
Was written down for all to seeWhat is Hammurabi’s Code?
“If he break another man’s bone, his bone shall be broken.”
“If a builder builds a house for someone, and does not construct it properly, and the house which he built fall in and kill its owner, then that builder shall be put to death.”Hammurabi’s law Code examples
Other civilizations began to move into the Fertile Crescent and fight over land
examples: The Hittites, Kassites, Assyrians, and ChaldeansWhat were other invasions of Mesopotamia?
The first to use iron, which made stronger weapons, and they used the chariot, a wheeled horse-drawn cart used in battle.
Captured Babylon in 1595 BC
Kingdom fell when king was assassinated
The Kassites overtook Babylon and ruled it for almost 400 yearsWho were the Hittites and Kassites?
1200s BC- the Assyrians from northern Meso. take Babylon, but were soon invaded by others
300 years later, the Assyrians recover strength and begin to conquer all of the Fertile Crescent, parts of Asia Minor, and Egypt.
Capital city was called NinevehWho were the Assyrians?
652 BC- Assyrian Empire became weak because of civil wars within the empire
The Chaldeans attacked the empire and in 612 BC destroyed Nineveh and the Assyrian Empire
The Chaldeans set up own empire with a rebuilt Babylon as their capitalWho were the Chaldeans?
Rebuilt Babylon as the richest city in the world
Built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon (One of the 7 Ancient Wonders of the World) as a gift to his depressed wife
http://www.unmuseum.org/hangg.htmWho was Nebuchadnezzar? (who?!)
Babylon was a major stop on a trade route b/w the Persian Gulf and Mediterranean Sea
Babylon was a center of trade, Sumerian culture, and science (astronomy)
They tracked stars and weather events, created a calendar, and solved complex geometry problems
Trade helped the spread of ideas…how?!
Chaldean Empire fell to the Persians in 539 BCWhat was Babylon Like under the Chaldeans?
Located at the western end of the Fertile Crescent near present-day Lebanon
Was a wealthy trading society
Sits on the Mediterranean Sea
Had few resources, but had cedar, a type of timber and valuable in trade
Overland trade routes were blocked by mountains, so they used the sea for trade transportWhat was Phoenicia Like?
Built harbors (ex: Tyre)
Built fast ships that traveled to Egypt, Greece, Sicily, and Spain
Created colonies along trade routes (ex: Carthage in N. Africa)
Traded cedar, silverwork, ivory carvings, slaves, glass-blown objects, purple dye
Grew VERY wealthyHow did the Phoenicians expand their trade?
An alphabet is a set of letters than can be combined to form words
Made writing much easier
Our English alphabet is based on the Phoenician one
Other civilizations such as Greece and Rome also used it and changed itWhat was the Phoenicians’ most important achievement?