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  1. 8th IT STAR WS on History of ComputingHistory of Computing in the West Balkan CountriesRepublic of CroatiaRepublic of Marijan FrkovicCITA, president and National ECDL Coordinator Museum of Computer History Szeged, 19th of September 2014

  2. CROATIAN IT ASSOCIATION (CITA) CITA ( is the umbrella organization of Croatian ICT experts founded in 1975, ever since it has been acting continuously CITA participates in the work of international ICT associations of informatics experts; ITSTAR (, CEPIS ( and IFIP ( CITA has ECDL license (, and license for the certification of professional ICT experts in Croatia..

  3. CITA AND IT STAR • Member from 2002 • CITA and IT STAR organized regional conference on e-business held in Zagreb on 2010, where it was opportunity to exchange experiences of e-business in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (

  4. CITA i their Organisation and Forums Croatian Society for Open Systems and Internet,founded 1992 Croatian ORACLE User Group,founded 1995 Croatian Society of Young Informaticians,founded 1985 Croatian Linux Users Group,founded 1996 Croatian Society of Geographic IS,founded 1994 Croatian Society of SAP,founded 1996 Croatian Society of ECDL test,founded 2003

  5. Marijan Frkovic, CV Active in informatics for more than 46 years having spent 24 years in a large steel company (13.000 employees) and 18 years in Croatian Chamber of Commerce  1968 - Programmer (UNIVAC 1004) II-nd generation, with external programing 1970 - Programmer and system analist(UNIVAC 1106) 1975 - Main system programmer and DB administrator 1982 - Project department leader 1983 - Computer centre director 1986 - Member of the Business Board of Stell Corporation for informatics (UNISYS 1100/72) 1992 - Director of Informatics department in Croatian Chamber of Commerce (UNISYS 80) 1993 - Member of the WG in ICC Paris for development World Chambers Network ( result 10.000 Chambers on the Net, Worldwide) 2005 - Member of the WG in ICC Paris for development e-business 2010 - Retired 1994 – 2002 President of CITA 2002 – 2011 Vice president and National ECDL coordinator 2011 – President of CITA

  6. Balkan CountriesWest Balkans Countries

  7. History of Computing in the former Yugoslavia There were no political barriers to import computer equipment from the West, which significantly influenced faster development of information systems and professional trainings of computer programmers. Countries of the former Yugoslavia

  8. Yugoslavia - Open computers market Open market had a negative influence on the development of computing in Croatia because users were buying computers mainly from abroad.

  9. Installed computers in the Yugoslavia, 1988 Very small - up to 10.000 $ Smal l- 10.000 – 50.000 $ Medium - 50.000 – 500.000 $ Large - more than 500.000 $

  10. Installed computers in the Yugoslavia, 1988

  11. Installed computers in the Yugoslavia, 1988

  12. Installed computers in the Yugoslavia,1980 Source: Yugoslav IT Association, 1989

  13. Installed computers in the Yugoslavia, 1988 Source: Yugoslav IT Association, 1989

  14. Installed computers in Croatia in the 1985th to 1989th Source: Croatian IT Association, 1990

  15. History of Computing in the former YugoslaviaOn the begining, computer used in nuclear instituts for atomic weapons research.No data about it.. Instituts Vinca, Beograd Serbia, 1948 Rudjer Boskovic, Zagreb Croatia, 1949 Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana Slovenia, 1949

  16. History of Computing in the former Yugoslavia The history of computing in in the former Yugoslavia can be divided into three periods: before 1965s, 1965s to 1975s, and after 1975s.

  17. History of Computing in the former Croatia – Before 1965 The development and manufacture of computers started in 1948 when Computing machinery factory Zagreb – (TRS ) was set up, the first of its kind in Croatia. At the beginning, the factory produced mechanical computers.

  18. History of Computing inCroatia - Before 1965 First digital computer in Croatia, 1959 Initiator and the one who built the first digital computer in Croatia was a Croatian scientist, the doyen of computer science, both in Croatia and worldwide, professor Branko Soucek, Professor Branko Soucek, PhD Institut "Rudjer Boskovic„ Zagreb,

  19. Beginning of computer science development in Croatia. First digital computer in Croatia, 1959 First computer called "256-channel analyzer, memory, logics and programs": based on vacuum tubes, the magnetic cores memory, speed of million cycles p/s, which was incredible at that time. Cathode tube was used as an output unit to display the data.

  20. Croatia - Before 1965 Business computer Usage of computers and the development of IS started it was based mainly on imported equipment. Due to high price, only large organizations could buy computers. Although the equipment had limited capacity, highly trained staff could develop complete applications, thus compensating for limited capacities. UNIVAC 1004/USA

  21. Croatia - Before 1965 Characteristics Plug-board programmed,punched card data introduced in 1962, core memory 961 characters (6 bits) Peripherals card reader (400 cards/minute), card punch (200 cards/minute) using 90-column, cards drum printer (400 lines/minute) Plug-board UNIVAC 1004

  22. Croatia - From 1965 to 1975 Unfortunately Steelworks Unfortunately, we were young and we did not think that this equipment should be preserved. This (large size) computers and all equipment used later (large scale computers)ended up in the steelworks.

  23. Croatia - From 1965 to 1975 Local production During 1968 , the first electronic calculator with optical display was developed. The calculator was based on 100 10-component integrated circuits produced in the factory RIZ in Croatia. At that time, there were no LSI or VLSI-chips in the world, as well as integrated circuits of high and very high degree of integration. Calculators

  24. Croatia - From 1965 to 1975 Colaboration with Slovenia TRS collaborated with the company MDS and Metalka from Ljubljana in the production of 711 series computers as well as with the company IBM in the production of Series i and System 1, equipped with peripherals from Croatia, intended for use in economy, schools, railway and others. System 1

  25. Croatia - From 1965 to 1975 3rd generation real time applications, , communication systems, databases, multiprogramming, which enabled, the faster processing units and larger storage of external memories, the development of IIS UNIVAC 1106/USA

  26. Croatia - From 1965 to 1975 4rd generation UNIVAC 1100/72 • Main companies were IBM, UNIVAC, ICL,Burroughs , BULL GAMMA, Honeywell, PDP and others.

  27. Croatia - From 1965 to 1975 During 1974 there was an idea that the development of computer equipment production in Croatia can progress in collaboration with only foreign partner - technologically developed and well off. Therefore, in 1976 the Government of the Republic of Croatia supported this initiative, so the Government contacted the companies ICL and SPERRY UNIVAC.

  28. Croatia - From 1965 to 1975 • In other parts of Yugoslavia the contacts were established as well, • Slovenia with Philips, • Serbia with Olivetti and Rockwell, • Bosnia and Herzegovina with NCR and Olympia

  29. Croatia - From 1965 to 1975New studies Computer science and Digital computers • In 1970 at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Faculty (FEE) of Science Zagreb were the first in Croatia introduced new study for undergraduate students in the 3rd and 4th year of the study: Computer science, and for the postgraduate study • 1970 introduced new college: Digital computers, too

  30. After 1975 Local Production • Couple of Croatian companies that produce the equipment for process management in telephone exchange, CAD CAM systems and graphics workstation, personal computers and peripherals (printers, cash registers, video terminals, discs) etc. • With open market, production of hardware in Croatia developed more slowly.

  31. After 1975 • In Croatia there were leading foreign manufacturers of computer equipment, IBM, SPERRY UNIVAC ( UNISYS) and others, who continued their work by installing computers of great capacities, • Developing IS with the support of highly trained croatian experts, which later resulted, after 1990 in establishing private IT companies that positioned well in the foreign market.

  32. After 1975 • Development of Croatian software and networkaccelerated, as result • Well educated of ICT professionals • Possibilities of buying hardware and software from abroad • Possibilities of more productive collaboration with the foreign • partners.

  33. After 1975 Croatia could not compete with the world in the development of hardware and system software, but the experience and knowledge of our experts used in the development of application software

  34. Museum of the old small computers and ITopened 2007 PEEK&POKE Club/Computer museum Rijeka Still had survived Severalhundred computers and more than the thousand calculators Veryearly calculators and game consoles to rare and obsolete computers from the nineties.

  35. A Brief History of Computing in Slovenia • Overview • Before 1965 • 1965 to 1975 • After 1975 • Present

  36. Slovenia - Before 1965 Computers are a new phenomenon with a poor understanding of their potential worldwide The same is true of Slovenia of that era Main calculating aids were electromechanical devices and slide rule However - There was an awareness that electronic computers might be useful in scientific and technical domain. As a result, Zuse 23 computer has been bought and installed as early as 1962. Its usage: Physics - statistics - extensive calculations in engineering (e.g. statics) However, it was still in function in 1967 and deployed to calculate score in 1967 European Figure Skating Championship in Ljubljana

  37. Slovenia - 1965 to 1975 Highlights In the world computers are recognized as a tool to enhance efficiency and productivity of commercial companies. Computers are recognized as a useful tool in public administration In Slovenia Major computer companies are represented: UNIVAC, National Cash Register, RCA, General Electric, Control Data Corporation, Honeywell, Burroughs, Digital Equipment Corporation, Olivetti and more First IBM Training Centre is established in Radovljica Major companies and administrative bodies start to establish data processing departments No own production of computers or peripherals yet.

  38. Slovenia - After 1975 Highlights Computers are here to stay as inevitable tools in all industries and activities Minicomputers start taking over the role of mainframes New concepts in computing: distributed computing cooperative computing client – server scheme computer networks In Slovenia Iskra Delta is established Development of Triglav/Trident – a most advanced personal computer of the time Start of “own“ production - Delta 340 Development of IBM-compatible application programs However In the late 1980s Iskra Delta dissolved, end of Slovenian computer production

  39. Slovenia - Present Highlights Ubiquitous computer and computing Internet Intelligent devices Mobile computing Social networks Massive data processing Need of computer skills recognized In Slovenia No own computer production Thousands of companies active in software development and providing related services Niche software products Bottom line: not to produce or own, but use intelligently

  40. Thank you Marijan Frkovic Croatian IT Association Prezident e-mail: 10000 Zagreb, Ilica 191e CROATIA,