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Chapter 11 Fat Soluble Vitamins: ADEK

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Chapter 11 Fat Soluble Vitamins: ADEK. Chapter 11 - FSV. Characteristics of fat-soluble vitamins Do not dissolve in water, but dissolve in fat or organic solvents. Dietary fat soluble vitamins need bile for absorption. The fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D,E and K

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Chapter 11

Fat Soluble Vitamins:


chapter 11 fsv
Chapter 11 - FSV

Characteristics of fat-soluble vitamins

  • Do not dissolve in water, but dissolve in fat or organic solvents.
  • Dietary fat soluble vitamins need bile for absorption.
  • The fat-soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D,E and K
  • Found in the fats and oils of foods.
  • Stored in the liver and fat tissue until needed
  • not readily excreted from the body.
  • Risk of toxicity.
storage of vitamins in the body
Storage of vitamins in the body
  • Vitamins A, D and E:
    • These three fat-soluble vitamins can accumulate in the liver and fat tissue of the body and are not readily excreted. Long-term intakes more than the RDA can be toxic, particularly vitamins A and D.
  • Vitamin K:
    • The other fat-soluble vitamin, vitamin K, is readily excreted from the body.
absorption transport
Absorption & transport
  • The fat-soluble vitamins, like lipids are absorbed with dietary fat.
    • Bile aids in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
    • The GI must function adequately for efficient uptake of fat-soluble vitamins.
  • Under normal conditions, healthy individuals will absorb 40-90% of fat-soluble vitamins.
absorption transport1
Absorption & Transport

Fat malabsorption interfere with the absorption of FSV.

  • Unabsorbed fat is excreted as feces.
  • The following conditions adversely affect the uptake of fat-soluble vitamins:
    • Cystic fibrosis
    • Crohn’s disease
    • Celiac disease
    • Certain medications

Vitamin A

Family of compounds called Retinoids:

  • Retinol – supports reproductive functions
    • Found in animal foods and nutrient supplements.
    • Can converted to retinoic acid and retinal in the body.
  • Retinal – Aid in vision
  • Retinoic acid – regulates growth
  • ~90% of retinoids are absorbed
  • These are preformed Vitamin A – form that the body readily uses. Found only in animal sources
provitamin a carotenoids
Provitamin A = carotenoids
  • Found in plant sources
  • Not biologically available until they are changed into one of the retinoids in the body
  • There are over 600 different carotenoids only 3 can be converted to vitamin A
    • Beta carotene (most common form)
    • Alpha carotene
    • Beta- cryptoxanthin
  • Accounts for 25 – 35 percent of dietary vitamin A consumed in the US
functions of vit a
Functions of Vit A
  • Essential for healthy eyes
  • Promotes cell differentiation
    • Determines what cell becomes in your body
    • Supports reproductive system, development of limbs, heart eyes and ears
  • Promotes bone and teeth growth
  • Play a role in immunity and preventing infections by creating white blood cells
  • Carotenoids, which act as antioxidants, decrease the damaging effects of free radicals.
sources of vitamin a
Sources of Vitamin A


  • Preformed Vit A
    • Organ meats (liver), milk, cereals, cheese and eggs are the most popular sources of
  • Provitamin A (carotenoids)
    • Fruits: peaches, apricots, cantaloupes, mangoes, papaya
    • Vegetables: tomatoes, carrots, winter squash, sweet potatoes, broccoli, romaine lettuce, collard greens and spinach.
    • Adding as little as 1 tablespoon of vegetable oil to your diet can increase absorption of carotenoids by as much as 25%
vitamin a
Vitamin A

RDA – can be measured in micrograms of retinoic activity equivalents (RAE) or in international units (IU). 1 RAE = 3.3 IU

  • 900 microgram for men
  • 700 microgram for women
  • Upper limit 3,000 microgram/day


  • Night blindness – difficulty seeing at dusk, can’t adjust from day light to dark
  • Vitamin A deficiency is the main cause of non-accidental blindness (Xerophthalmia)
  • Many die after blindness as a result of infection.
    • The eye becomes prone to infections when the conjunctiva is damaged.
    • Infections can spread systemically throughout the body.
  • Hypervitaminosis A - is a condition that results from excessive intake of vitamin A from supplements
  • Cause defective physical development during early development of the fetus resulting in birth defects
    • Even 3X RDA vitamin A is considered risky during pregnancy.
  • Accutane is associated with congenital malformations result involving the head and brain.
  • FDA has recommended that women of childbearing years limit their vitamin A intake to 100% RDA
  • High consumption of vitamin A has been linked to osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures
  • Provitamin A carotenoids in foods are not toxic
  • Extra carotenoids are stored in the liver and in the fat under the skin, causing carotenodermia
vitamin d calceferol
Vitamin D/calceferol
  • Also called the “sunshine vitamin” because it is made with the help of ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight
  • Vitamin D enters your body in an inactive form
  • The kidneys convert dietary vitamin D into the active form
  • Precursor = body’s cholesterol
vitamin d calceferol1
Vitamin D/ calceferol
  • Functions of Vit D
    • Helps bone health by regulating calcium and phosphorus concentration in the blood
    • When blood concentration of calcium is low, vitamin D and parathyroid hormone signals the kidney to decrease excretion of calcium and phosphorous
  • Sources of vit D
    • Fortified milk, cereals, yogurt, fatty fish
vitamin d
Vitamin D

Adequate Intake:

  • 5 micrograms/day for 19-50 yr
  • 10 micrograms/day for 51-70 yr
  • 15 micrograms/day for >70 yr
  • Upper level: 50 micrograms/day
vitamin d1
Vitamin D


  • Rickets in children (soft bones)
    • poor bone mineralization
    • Bowed legs
    • Unable to hold up their own weight when standing up
    • Recently researchers have found a rise in rickets among children,
      • linked to increase consumption of soft drinks
      • Limited outdoor activities
      • Fear of skin cancer
      • Air pollution reduces ultraviolet rays of the sun by as much as 60%
vitamin d2
Vitamin D

Osteomalacia - adult form of rickets

  • Occurs in women with decreased calcium and phosphorus intake
  • Causes bone weakness and pain
  • Can lead to osteoporosis
vitamin d toxicity
Vitamin D Toxicity

Hypervitaminosis D – associated with over-consumption of supplements

  • Increased calcium withdrawal in bones and intestines
  • Increased calcium and phosphorous

concentrations in the blood (hypercalcemia)

  • Increase calcium deposits in kidneys, lungs, blood vessels and heart
vitamin e
Vitamin E
  • Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant
    • Prevent oxidation of lipids, vit A and LDL to prevent build-up in the arteries
    • Neutralize free radicals before they damage cell membranes
    • Prevents blood clotting in the blood by acting as anticoagulant
  • There are 8 different forms, only one is active in the body (alpha- tocopherol)
  • The synthetic is only half as active as the natural
vitamin e1
Vitamin E


  • Polyunsaturated plant oils (vegetable oils)
  • Nuts and seeds
  • Leafy green vegetables
  • Fortified cereals


Adults need 15 milligrams/day

Upper limit is 1,000 milligrams

vitamin e2
Vitamin E


  • Erythrocyte hemolysis in premature infants (red blood cell destruction causing anemia)

Toxicity from synthetic form or fortified foods

  • increase risk of hemorrhage
  • A deficiency of vitamin K can increase the anticoagulant effect
vitamin k
Vitamin K

There are two forms of vitamin K:

  • Menaquinone – synthesized by the intestinal tract
  • Phylloquinone – found in green plants


  • Essential for blood clotting
  • Vitamin K plays a role synthesizing clotting factors
  • Without vit k a simple cut on the finger would cause uncontrollable bleeding
  • Synthesis of bone protein (osteocalcin) that regulates blood calcium.
vitamin k1
Vitamin K
  • Inadequate amount of vitamin K may contribute to osteoporosis, associated with increased risk of hip fractures


  • Intestinal bacteria can make vitamin K but not enough to meet all of the body’s needs
  • Leafy green vegetables
  • Cabbage family vegetables
  • Vegetable oils and margarine
vitamin k2
Vitamin K


  • Newborn infants receive a single dose of vitamin K at birth because of a sterile intestinal tract to prevent hemorrhagic disease
  • Rare in healthy individuals


  • No known adverse effect from consuming too much vitamin K from food or supplement
  • Interferes with anticlotting medication (coumadin)
recommendation for vitamin k
Recommendation for Vitamin K

Adequate Intake (based on amount that is consumed on average)

Infants: 2 – 2.5 microgram

Children: 30 – 55 microgram

Men: 60 – 120 microgram

Women: 60 – 90 microgram

homework extra credit
Homework/extra credit

5 points

Complete the vitamin/mineral evaluation form posted on the course website