PUBLIC HEALTH Promoting Public health.
Introduction: • In order to understand what public health means we need to begin with what health means. • We will use the definition of health that was adopted by the World Health organization (WHO). • The definition of health originated in the Alma Ata Declaration which was signed by participants at a WHO international conference in 1978 on Primary Health Care.
Health Definition of health • According to Alma Ata Declaration, it states that health is a state of complete physical, social and mental wellbeing and not just the absence of disease or infirmity.
Continuation: • Alma-Ata Declaration also said some important things about health that PHANZ also endorses. • Apart from providing the definition of health, health is characterized as a fundamental human right as well as attaining the highest possible level of health that is an important social goal worldwide. • The Alma-Ata Declaration recognizes that by realizing the goal, it also required the actions of other social and economic sectors apart from the health sectors.
Continuation • Our own Public Health Advisory Committee further emphasized the importance of recognizing the breadth of the determinants of health. According to the research of the committee, they revealed that the strongest influences on the health of individuals normally comes from the factors that are outside the health system. • They includes the social, physical, cultural and economic environment in which we live
Public Health • It is a science and art of promoting health preventing disease as well as prolonging life through education, research as well as promotion of healthy lifestyle. • Public health focuses on health promotion as well as disease or injury prevention which contrast to the medical model of care. • Medical model of care focuses more on diagnosis and treating illnesses as well as conditions after they occur.
How to differentiate Public health from other health care? • Based on the definition of public health, there are a number of key things that differentiate it from personal health and public health interventions from person health services. These include; • Public health is all about keeping people well instead of treating their diseases, disorders as well as disabilities after they emerged hence this is why the definition of public health emphasizes more on promoting health, prolonging life as well as preventing disease. • Public health focuses more on populations and not individuals hence it is often described as being for protecting people instead of treating the few who fall off. • The adjective public that is used in “public health has two meaning thus they are all important. The first meaning means that the health of the public while the second meaning means the organized efforts of society.
The five core disciplines of public health are: • Behavioral science or health education • Environmental health • Biostatistics • Health services administration • Epidemiology
Factors contributing to public health and community wellbeing • the natural and physical/built environment, • the social, economic and cultural environment • individual behaviors • And lastly, health diseases across physical, mental. Family as well as spiritual dimension.
International Milestones in Public Health • Apart from the Alma-Ata Declaration in 1978, individuals who have a background of public health generally cite other major landmarks as well in international thinking about public health as being; • Ottawa Charter of health promotion in 1986. • Bangkok Charter for Health promotion in a Globalized World in 2005 • And lastly, The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health in 2008.
The Ottawa Charter • The United Nations World Health Organization sponsored the first international conference on health promotion in 1986 in Ottawa, Canada. • The experts who attended the conference developed the Ottawa Charter for health promotion; this was an international framework for promoting health as well as achieving health for all.
The four key themes for health promotion action in the Ottawa Charter • The four key themes for health promotion action in the Ottawa Charter includes: • To advocate for good health. This is because good health is the major resource for social, economic and personal development as well as an important dimension of quality of life • To enable both men and women to take control of those things that determine their health and also reduce health inequities for the purpose of enabling all people to achieve their fullest health potential. • To mediate between central and local government agencies, voluntary organization, and professional groups. This was aimed at promoting the health individuals, families as well as communities since the health sector alone cannot ensure the prerequisites and prospects for health • A one size fits all approach is not feasible in health promotion. In order to be successful, strategies as well as the programmes should be adopted to local needs and possibilities having in mind the differing social, cultural and economic system
Components of the framework for health promotion • The framework for health promotion action that was advocated in the Ottawa Charter has five key components which are; • Build healthy public policy • Strengthen community actions • Create supportive environments • Reorient health services • Develop personal skills • Move into the Future
The Bangkok Charter. • After the adoption of Ottawa Chatter in 1986, the WHO member states signed certain number of resolutions at both national and global level in support of health promotion but these actions where not followed hence in 2005, WHO called gain experts from its member states to examine as well as advise on how they would close this implementation gap so that they can move to policies and also partnerships for action. The result is known as the Bangkok Charter for Health Promotion worldwide.
Continuation: • According to Bangkok Charter, in order to further make advances in implementing these strategies, it recommends that all sectors and settings must act to: • Advocate for health based on human rights and solidarity • Partner and build alliances with public, private, nongovernmental and international organizations and civil society in order to create sustainable actions. • Invest in sustainable policies, actions and infrastructure to address the determinants of health • Build capacity for policy development, health promotion practice, leadership, knowledge transfer and research, as well as health literacy • Regulate and legislate to ensure a high level of protection from harm and enable equal opportunity for health and well-being for all people
Key commitments • The four key commitments of the Bangkok Charter are to make the promotion of health: • central to the global development agenda • a requirement for good corporate practice. • a key focus of communities and civil society • a core responsibility for all of government
WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health • The current and the latest international landmark publication on action to improve public health is the 2008 report of the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health. • According to the Commission, they found out that social injustice is killing people on a grand scale hence concluded that the poor health of the poor, the marked health inequities between countries and the social gradient of health within countries are facilitated by; • the unequal distribution of power, goods and services, income both globally and nationally • the consequent unfairness in access to health care, conditions of work and leisure, schools and education, homes, communities, towns/ cities, this diminish the chance of the poor and ill individuals hence leading a flourishing life.
Reference: • “Promoting Public Health and Wellbeing in your Community”, (20100, Retrieved from; http://www.pha.org.nz/documents/How-to-promote-public-health-in-your-community.pdf • “World Health Organization”, (1978), Declaration of Alma-Ata: International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alms-Ata, USSR, (1978), Retrieved from; http://www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/declaration_almaata.pdf • Verweig M and Dawson A., “The Meaning of “Public” in “Public Health”, Chapter 2, from Public Health Advisory Committee of the National Board of Health website, Retrieved from; http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.co.uk/pdf/0-19-929069-5.pdf