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Biology The elements which make up carbohydrates. The structural formula of glucose The condensation of glucose to form the disaccharide maltose The condensation of glucose and fructose to form the disaccharide sucrose (a non-reducing sugar)
The elements which make up carbohydrates. The elements which make up carbohydrates are: • Carbon • Hydrogen • Oxygen. Carbohydrate means ‘hydrated carbon’. Structure: one carbon and water molecule with every two hydrogen molecules Ratio: 1:2:1
Monosaccharides Monosaccharides are the most basic molecular units of which carbohydrates are composed. They include: • Glucose • Fructose These are both reducing sugars
The structural formula of glucose Glucose: C6H12O6 In nature glucose is found as a ring shaped molecule. Or simpler
Disaccharides Disaccharides are formed when two monosaccharides join together by a GLYCOSIDIC bond. This reaction involves the formation of a water molecule (H20) H H O
The formation of maltose. Maltose (a reducing sugar) is formed by the condensation of two glucose molecules.
The formation of sucrose Sucrose (a non-reducing sugar) is formed by the condensation of a glucose and a fructose molecule.