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Taaldiversiteit in het Onderwijs Linguistic D iversity in Education. Dr. Alex M.J. Riemersma Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Education a.m.j.riemersma@nhl.nl Ems -Dollard Regiodag Groningen,22 November 2012. Overview. Global Linguistic Diversity

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taaldiversiteit in het onderwijs linguistic d iversity in education

Taaldiversiteit in het Onderwijs LinguisticDiversity in Education

Dr. Alex M.J. Riemersma Lector Frisian & Multilingualism in Educationa.m.j.riemersma@nhl.nl

Ems-Dollard RegiodagGroningen,22 November 2012

overview
Overview
  • Global LinguisticDiversity
  • Individual bi- andplurilingualism
  • Transfer & Translanguaging
  • MultilingualEducation: why, what, how, results
  • Language Policy at School
startvragen
Startvragen
  • Waar denkt U aan bij:
  • Taaldiversiteit in het onderwijs
  • Taalgericht vakonderwijs
  • Meertalig onderwijs
  • Schooltaalbeleid
global linguistic d iversity
Global LinguisticDiversity
  • Globe: 6,000 Languages (in oraluse)
  • Unesco Language Vitality Index (2009): more than 2,500 languages (in oraluse)endangered / threatenedwithextinct in 21st century
global linguistic diversity
Global LinguisticDiversity
  • 600 à 700 Languageswith basic infrastructure: Orthography, Dictionary, GrammarBook
  • 475 Languageswith complete Bibletranslation+1,240 languageswith New Testament + 823 languageswith (small) part of Bible
language vitality factors 6
Language Vitality factors (6)
  • Intergenerational transmission
  • Absolute number of speakers
  • Proportion of speakers within total population
  • Trends in existing domains
  • Response to new domains & media
  • Materials for Education and Literacy
language vitality factors 3
Language Vitality factors (3)
  • Governmental and Institutional Language Attitudes & Politics
  • Community Member’s Attitudes towards their own languages
  • Documentation (& corpus planning)
degrees of endangerment
Degrees of Endangerment
  • 5: safe The language is used by all ages, from children up.
  • 4: unsafe The language is used by some children in all domains; it is used by all children in limited domains.
  • 3: definitively endangered The language is used mostly by the parental generation and up.
  • 2: severely endangered The language is used mostly by the grandparental generation and up.
  • 1: critically endangered The language is used mostly by very few speakers, of great-grandparental generation.
  • 0: extinct There exists no speaker.
i nternational organisations
International organisations
  • United Nations (195 member states): 6 workinglanguages:Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
  • Council of Europe (47 member states):6 workinglanguages:English, French (documents)German, Italian, Russian, Spanish (interpretation)
eu language policies
EU Language Policies
  • Mother tongue + 2 otherlanguages
  • Individual Multilingualism as anasset> (2) Mother tongue + 2 (or more)
  • Lifelong Learning Program (2007-2013)> Erasmus forAll (2014-2020)
european policies eu
European Policies: EU
  • European Treaty:“EU respects the religious, culturalandlinguisticdiversity.”
  • Definition “Mother tongue” = state language
  • Principle of “subsidiarity” is in favour of nationallanguages.
  • “Alllanguages are equal” > “mainstreaming” is in fact in favour of English (only) !
individual bi and plurilingualism
Individualbi- andplurilingualism
  • 65% of worldpopulationuses more thanonelanguage in everyday life
  • 10% of EU populationspeaksa minoritylanguage
  • Millions of migrant language speakers
individual bi and plurilingualsm
Individual bi- andplurilingualsm
  • Handicap forhappiness?
  • Assetforsuccesses in:> cognitive> character> communication> culture> career
ice berg by jim cummins
Ice berg by Jim Cummins

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en opvoeding

triple ice berg and common underlying proficiency
Triple Ice berg and Common UnderlyingProficiency

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma Lectoraat Fries & Meertaligheid in Onderwijs en Opvoeding

why multilingual education
Why multilingual education?
  • Mother tongue development
  • Cognitivedevelopments
  • Easierthirdlanguageacquisition
  • Flexiblecommunication:> socialparticipation> economicsuccess: career & cash
  • Culturalheritage/language maintenance
foreign language learning
Foreign languagelearning
  • Original status & function:> Elite – mainly in reading andwriting> Culturalpurposes
  • Changingtowards:> Allstudentsandadults: “M + 2”> Global communication – oraluse & ict
development of multilingual education in 20th century
Development of multilingualeducation in 20th century
  • Neglect of mother tongue > submersion
  • Transitionalbilingualism> subtractivebilingualism
  • Equalfooting / immersion> additive / full bilingualism
goals of multilingual education
Goals of MultilingualEducation
  • Culturalheritage of home language
  • Transitiontowardsnationallanguageversus:
  • Language maintenance & development
  • Full bilingualism / biliterate
characteristics of m ultilingual education
Characteristics of MultilingualEducation
  • Goal oriented> languagedevelopment> full bilingualism & biliteracy
  • Subject & use (medium of instruction)
  • Communication & culture
  • Continuous curriculum
models of multilingual education
Models of multilingualeducation
  • One person / onelanguage > identificationwith ‘native speaker’
  • Split of time > languagerich input
  • Division of subjects > taskspecific & CLIL: content & languageintegratedlearning
  • Immersion (in the weakerlanguage)
immersion versus clil
Immersion versus CLIL
  • Immersion:
  • from (pre-)school onwards
  • more than 50% teaching time
  • native speakers as teachers
  • CLIL:
  • Mainly in secondaryeducation
  • Lessthan 50% of teaching time
  • Non-native speakers as teachers
actors at macro meso level
Actors at Macro + Meso level
  • Macro (nationalandinternational): conflictingpolicies
  • National: stress on nationallanguageonlydiscouragingregionaland migrant languages
  • International: EU-/ CoE-policy: mother tongue + 2
  • Meso (school level): reflectsconflictingpolicies
  • Concept of MultilingualEducation (ME) fits betterto EU- & CoE-policy  CLIL & Immersion

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

bilingual education in the netherlands
BilingualEducation in the Netherlands
  • NO migrant languageeducation
  • Primary school: English obligatory+ 650 schools “Earlylanguagelearning”
  • Secondary school: English + one+ 160 schools with English – CLIL + 2 schools withGerman - CLIL
why language policy at school
Why Language Policy at School?
  • Changingworld(s):mobility & experiences
  • Position school in multilingual context
  • Awareness raising on linguisticdiversity: minority & migrant languages
  • Integrated teaching & learning
what language policy at school
What Language Policy at School?
  • “Every teacher is a language teacher”
  • Integrated Teaching & Learning
  • Comparability of:- teachers’ didactics- students’ results- schools’ results in the region
  • Visibility of languages: source & target
language policy at school
Language Policy at School
  • Vision on school as:- “languagerich school” / TTO / VVTO- Bi-, tri- or multilingual school
  • Agreements on languageuse:- internalcommunication at school- internalcommunication in the class room- externalcommunication: orallyand in writing (f.e. on the school website)
professional competencies language policy at school
Professional Competencies Language Policy at School
  • In service training aiming at qualifiedteachers (competencies) towards: “Every teacher is a language teacher”
  • Language support for subject teachers (f.e. native speakers)
professional co operation language policy at school
Professional Co-operation Language Policy at School
  • Transfer: (implicit) use of variouslanguages
  • Translanguaging: acquisition of knowledge in onelanguage, useand present in anotherlanguage
  • CLIL: Content & Language Integrated Learning
  • Comparison of Languages:grammar, vocabulary, pragmatics
activities on language richness of the school
Activities on Language Richness of the School
  • Thematic week on LinguisticDiversityincludingRMLs & IMLs
  • Weekly Presentation of a student’slanguageandits culture
  • Special activitieslanguageacquisitionf.e. Language Village
actors for multilingual education
Actors formultilingualeducation
  • Educationalauthorities(national, regional, local school board)
  • School principals & management
  • Class room teachers
  • Parents & students
  • Socialandculturalenvironemnt
micro school class room
Micro (school & class room)
  • Teamwork of teachers of subjects and medium of instruction > integral approach
  • Common descriptors of languagecommand in the target languages > CEFR + Language Portfolio
  • Comparabletestingmethods> student monitoring system
  • Learning strategies of pupilsbased on translanguagingandlanguageuse

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

ambitions of lectureship
Ambitions of lectureship
  • Continuity of MultilingualEducationfromprimarytosecondaryeducation; adequate teacher training
  • Didactic approach for teacher training:- effective & integratedlearning- aiming at results
  • Language portfolio:- languagesintegrated- curriculum oriented

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

ambitions of lectureship1
Ambitions of lectureship
  • Development of measurement tool forcomparableresults of languagecommand:- Frisian – Dutch - English;Reference levels: - CEFR: Common European Reference Level (Council of Europe)- DFR: Dutch nationalreference levels - Anglia-levels / Me!English- Frisia-level

Reitze Jonkman en Alex Riemersma

relevant literature
Relevant literature
  • M. Hajer & Th. Meestringa, Handboek Taalgericht Vakonderwijs.
  • H. Paus e.a., Dertien doelen in een dozijn. Een referentiekader voor taalcompetenties van leraren in Nederland en Vlaanderen. Nederlandse Taalunie.
slide43

Dankuwel

  • Dankscheen
  • Eskerrik asko
  • Köszönöm

Tankewol

Tankewol

  • Mercé plan
  • Grazia
  • Graciis
  • Kiitos
  • Multimesc
  • Hvala
  • Trugarez
  • Diolch

Thank you

Tankewol

  • Mange Takk