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Pad Foundation. Lectured by: Ms. Noorhidayah Sunarti School of Quantity surveying & Construction Management. What is Foundation?. Foundation is the element of a structure that serves to support the loads super-imposed to it through the transmitting elements (such as columns). Functions.

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pad foundation

Pad Foundation

Lectured by:

Ms. Noorhidayah Sunarti

School of Quantity surveying & Construction Management

what is foundation
What is Foundation?
  • Foundation is the element of a structure that serves to support the loads super-imposed to it through the transmitting elements (such as columns).
functions
Functions
  • Prevent settlement (including differential settlement) of a structure
  • Prevent possible movement of structure due to periodic shrinkage and swelling of subsoil
  • Allow building over water or water-logged ground
  • Resist uplifting or overturning forces due to wind
  • Resist lateral forces due to soil movement
  • Underpin (support) existing or unstable structures
classification of foundation
Classification of Foundation

Foundation in general can be classified into a number of ways, such as:

1. Simple, Shallow and Deep foundation

2. Pad/strip type and piled foundation

shallow foundation
Shallow foundation
  • This type of foundation usually refers to those being rested on stratum with adequate bearing capacity and laid less than 3m below ground level.
  • Common examples include pad, strip or raft foundations.
  • A combination of two or three type of shallow foundation in one single structure is not uncommon.
raft foundation
Raft Foundation
  • Raft foundation is a large combined thick slab designed to seat and support the whole or a large part of a structure.
  • A raft is usually used when subsoil is weak, or columns are closely located and with deviated loadings.
  • It also serves as a transfer slab to combine and tie up all the vertical loading elements to the plate-form foundation. By doing so, differential settlement can be avoided.
measurement principles element pad foundation
MEASUREMENT PRINCIPLES ELEMENT: PAD FOUNDATION

**refer to drawings – plan , section view

  • Components:
    • Reinforced foundation base / concrete pad
    • Column stump
taking off lists items to be measured
TAKING-OFF LISTS (items to be measured)
  • Reinforced foundation base / concrete pad
    • Concreting works
      • Reinforced concrete Grade __ in concrete pad / foundation base. (m3)
      • Lean Concrete blinding Grade _ under concrete pad / foundation base. (m2)
    • Formwork
      • Sawn formwork to sides of concrete pad / foundation base. (m2)
    • Reinforcement works(not available in this task)
      • High tensile reinforcement bar in concrete pad (kg/m)
      • Mild steel reinforcement bar in concrete pad (kg/m)
plan of pad foundation

300mm

1250mm

300mm

1250mm

Plan of Pad Foundation

Nos. of foundation base = 4 nos.

Nos. of column stump = 4 nos.

section of pad foundation
Section of pad foundation

G.L

Column stump

6R8-225

750mm

4Y20

Reinforced concrete pad

300mm

25mm Thick lean concrete

taking off lists items to be measured1
TAKING-OFF LISTS (items to be measured)
  • Reinforced column stump
    • Concreting works
      • Reinforced concrete Grade _ in column stump (m3)
    • Formwork
      • Sawn formwork to sides of column stump (m2)
    • Reinforcement works(not available in this task)
      • High tensile reinforcement bar in column stump (kg/m)
      • Mild steel reinforcement bar in column stump (kg /m)
piled foundation
Piled foundation
  • Piled foundation is a form of foundation using piles to transfer the loads of a structure down to a firm soil stratum with sufficient load-taking capacity.
  • Materials for the piles can be of:
    • Timber
    • Pre cast concrete (sometimes also pre-stressed)
    • In-situ reinforced concrete
    • steel piles in ‘H’ or circular section
classification of piled foundation
Classification of Piled Foundation
  • Piled Foundation can be classified into:

1.End Bearing pile or Friction pile (or of combined nature)

2.Piles formed by manual or mechanical methods

3.Percussion Piles (driven by hammer) or Non-percussion Piles (form by augering, boring or drilling)

4.Displacement or replacement piles