Challenges • Limited government capacity at implementation and coordination levels, • Security situation and accessibility, • Manufacturing and supply capacity: supply bottlenecks, • Information gap: Lack of clear and valid information pre-emergency post-emergency on needs, response and gaps, including existing disparities, • Convergence and pursuing equity, • Funding, donor conditions, • Changing ground realities, • Cluster coordination, Cluster Partners, Cluster Accountabilities • Implementing partner’s capacity limitations, • Human resources • Monitoring of on the ground activities.
Successes and Lessons Learned • Alignment with development • Diversifying the implementation modalities through LTA’s with private sector and NGOs is key to scaling up • Implementation through government is key to scaling up where capacity exists • Addressing disparities is driven by adequate information • LTA’s with private sector to support technical supervision and monitoring to address gaps in human resources. • Preparedness is a key to timely, predicted and effective response • Furthering outreach for local supplies can substitute the need for off-shore procurement • Sanitation—start low • There is a need to strengthen integration and convergence of multiple sectors within UNICEF and Clusters. Common funding, common goals • Monitoring, Monitoring, Monitoring…quality control is key
Technical • Separate Manuals and Refresher Trainings for CRPs. • Coverage area for one CRP to be reduced. • Training manual for imparting trainings to entrepreneurs. • Wetland and demo latrine construction design to be approved by PHED. • Institutional • Ensuring gender balance in CRPs for greater reach out. • Sustainable latrine options to be regularly developed. • Behavioral/Social • Major focus of the program is on behavior change. Lesson Learned
Challenges • RUSFAD is working on low-subsidized approach in target flood affected communities in the early recovery phase. • Lack of awareness on sanitation issues due to low literacy rate. • Transformation of CRPs and VSCs for achieving sustainability.
Lessons Learnt (Floods 2010 – 2011) • Ground assessment (ideally lead by a nuetral agency) for project proposal • Community participation (men and women) ensures compliance to emergency standards e.g. HAP and Sphere etc • Contact information of implementing parter printed on distribution packages for beneficiary’s feedback, immediately • Instead of spreading out relief operations into several locations, its rather beneficial to concentrate in one large area • Increase duration of food distribution, rotation of food ration until three months at least, instead of one month (onetime) distribution
Lessons Learnt (Floods 2010 – 2011) continue… • Bilateral meeting with coordinating bodies (e.g. Clusters) are beneficial for better coordination at organizational level • During the 2011 emergency, coordination meetings at district level were limited to discussions but not actions • Gender balanced staff should be hired from the local vicinities and trained and participate throughout project cycle • Ongoing staff capacity building is must to ensure quality and accountability of relief/recovery interventions • DRR must be considered in all recovery interventions • Conflicting data on affected poplulatin from (Pak Government authorities and UNOCHA’s assessment, which lack consensus
Handpumps • The hand-pump must be constructed in the centre of the concrete slab. This is very important to avoid spillage over the sides of the slab – which makes the surrounding area slippery and dangerous, as well as polluted and a potential source of contamination. When the hand-pump is in the centre of the slab, the slab is kept clean and is therefore also more suitable for washing. • In the recovery context hand-pumps should ideally serve 4-5 household. However, it is often preferable to give the hand-pump to one household, and sign an MoU with them stating that they will allow 3 other households use of the pump. Limiting the number of households per pump increases ownership and responsibility for maintenance and is more sustainable than communal hand-pumps supervised by Water Management Committees – who’s lifespan after the project is questionable.
Latrines Communal latrines should only be planned for construction connected to a pre-existing social structure such as schools, mosques. Free standing communal latrines will not be maintained and will fall out of use, or will be taken over by the landowner – thereby making them non-communal. For private or semi-private (3 households of the same extended family), consider providing materials for the sub-structure (septic tank, latrine slab, ventilation pipe and WC), and leave the superstructure as a beneficiary contribution. In this manner only beneficiaries willing to invest in their latrine will receive it, promoting ownership and use. Plan to construct separate latrines for males and females. Ensure that the location of female latrines is carefully considered in terms of security and access (particularly at night). If there is limited budget priorities women. Ensure that latrine construction is accompanied by hygiene promotion training, so that communities understand the sanitary advantages of using latrines. If possible target women, men and children (through schools) separately to ensure all members of the community understand the benefits of latrine usage – and importantly – hand washing after use. Ensure a post construction follow up training on maintenance (cleaning, timely emptying of septic tank (de-slugging) etc).
Hygiene kits and hygiene promotion In a short term project, and/or areas where female education rates are low Community Hygiene Promoters should be avoided, with ACTED hygiene promoters used instead. Problems with finding educated women, who were able to travel between villages is highly challenging. To be effective hygiene promotion must target all members of a community. House-to-house training is suitable for women, whilst group sessions can target men. School sessions can target children with child level activities such as puppet shows, sports events, hygiene walks at schools. Hygiene promotion should also target health workers (community midwives etc) and other community service personnel, including teashop and restaurant owners.
Lessons Learnt • Effective coordination, partnership and stewardship are necessary to reach all vulnerable communities affected by an emergency • The voluntary nature of the international humanitarian system leads to uneven coordination, lack of predictable leadership and accountability systems, as well as to long-standing gaps in response. • Recent catastrophic 2010 and 2011 floods, have raised awareness that the government must put in place a robust preparedness systems and adopt a more comprehensive and systematic view of risk management. • Reliable information is essential in order to target the most vulnerable, and plan, monitor, coordinate and be accountable to stakeholders • WASH cluster programming decisions and reports are not sufficiently based on objective assessment evidence and on regular monitoring and evaluation information.
The most appropriate point of use (POU) option for a location depends on existing water and sanitation conditions, water quality (including aesthetic conditions such as taste, odour and colour), cultural acceptability, implementation feasibility, availability of HWTS (House Hold Water Treatment Systems) technologies, environmental factors and other local conditions. • Water treatment needs to be accompanied by safe storage. Containers with narrow openings and a dispensing device such as a tap or spigot are indispensable to protect collected water against re-contamination. These measures are particularly important because the microbial quality of drinking water frequently declines after collection. • POU interventions are most effective if used correctly and consistently. Identifying and implementing approaches to ensure their sustainable uptake is essential in order to achieve maximum impact.
Raising hand pumps above floodwater level is an easy and inexpensive long-term solution activity. It should be factored in all response activities carried out by agencies working in the rehabilitation phase, as an effective mitigation strategy. • Emergency water supplies are expensive to deploy, operate and maintain. Preference should be given to flood protection and emergency preparedness. It is less expensive to prevent and avoid the need for emergency water supplies than it is to provide them as a crisis response . • Hygiene kits should be constituted around key hygiene messages for promotion during flood emergencies; they should facilitate the use of safe water for drinking, the use of toilets and handwashing with soap at critical times.
Lessons Learnt- UN WOMEN Application of gender markers during humanitarian response Sex disaggregated data as a first step to gender sensitive humanitarian response Integration of gender response during relief, recovery and rehabilitation phases Finances to meet gender-specific Millennium Development Goals
Gender Marker Analysis March 20, 2012