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Enzyme Notes

Enzyme Notes

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Enzyme Notes

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  1. Enzyme Notes Unit 2 Chapter 4 (pgs 76-80) Patrick’s case study

  2. Metabolism = anabolism + catabolism Anabolism Catabolism

  3. Enzymes • Structure • Folded protein • Active site • Substrate • Specific to active site • Enzymes named after substrate • Ex. Lactase -> lactose • Lock and key

  4. Enzyme-catalyzed reaction **Enzyme can be reused over and over how enzymes work

  5. Activation Energy • Energy needed to begin a reaction • Enzymes lower activation energy • Enzymes are biological catalysts

  6. Factors the affect enzyme function • Temperature (heat) • pH • Substrate/enzyme concentration

  7. Patrick at 2: Patrick at 21: Movie in QuickTime (mov) Why did Patrick lose his ability to move?

  8. Patrick’s History • When Patrick was 16 years old, his hand started twitching as he picked up a glass at dinner. • Five months later (in February 2001), he fell down the steps at his home and was unable to climb the steps to the bus. He went to the ER for his progressive weakness. • At Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia he was initially diagnosed with a demyelinating disease. • He was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and antibodies for 2 years with no improvement. • What was wrong with Patrick?

  9. CQ2: Which of the following processes requires energy? A: Creating ion gradients across membranes. B: Muscle shortening. C: Protein synthesis. D: All of the above.

  10. What is energy? • Potential Energy = stored energy • Chemical bonds • Concentration gradients • Electrical potential • Kinetic Energy = movement energy • Heat = molecular motion • Mechanical = moving molecules past each other • Electrical = moving charged particles

  11. Cycling between stored chemical versus movement energy • Stored chemical energy must be released • Processes that RELEASE energy • Make ATP • Catabolic • Movement requires energy • Processes that REQUIRE energy • Use ATP • Anabolic • Energy released > Energy required • ATP plays a central role

  12. ATP plays a central role in energy cycling + Stored chemical energy is released in catabolic reactions to make ATP ATP is used in energy requiring reactions like muscle movement 12

  13. CQ3: The high energy phosphate bond in ATP is _____ and ____ energy to break the bond. A: Easy to break, releases B: Hard to break, requires C: Easy to break, requires D: Hard to break, releases

  14. ATP plays a central role in metabolism • ATP is NOT the highest energy molecule • intermediate energy • ATP hydrolysis releases energy • phosphate groups require low energy to break • new bonds formed release more energy than the energy required to break the bond

  15. CQ4: What would happen if Patrick lost his ability to make ATP? A: His muscles would not be able to contract. B: His neurons would not be able to conduct electrical signals. C: Both A and B.

  16. How is ATP generated? • ATP is formed through metabolic pathways. • In metabolic pathways, the product of one reaction is a reactant for the next. • Each reaction is catalyzed by an enzyme.

  17. CQ5: Which statement about enzymes is correct? A: Enzymes are always proteins. B: Enzymes are consumed in a reaction. C: Enzymes are always active. D: All are correct. E: None are correct.

  18. DNA mutations can disrupt metabolic pathways • Patrick suffered from a genetic disease that altered the structure of one protein. • The protein was an enzyme. • The enzyme could potentially: • lose its ability to catalyze a reaction. • lose its ability to be regulated.

  19. CQ7: Consider the following metabolic pathway:A C D BIf the enzyme responsible for converting A to C was mutated and nonfunctional, what would happen? A: A levels would increase; B, C, and D levels would decrease. B: A and B levels would increase; C and D levels would decrease. C: A, B and C levels would increase; D levels would decrease. D: A, B, C, and D levels would all decrease.

  20. pyruvic acid electrons (in NADH & FADH2) glucose Krebs Cycle ETC glycolysis ATP ATP ATP Cellular Respiration Review

  21. CQ8: Consider the following metabolic pathway: Pyruvate Acetyl CoA TCA (kreb) cycle LactateIf Patrick’s enzyme responsible for converting pyruvate to acetyl CoA was inhibited, what would happen?

  22. Patrick suffered from lactate acidosis • Lactate (lactic acid) and pyruvate accumulated in his blood. • Acidosis led to: • Hyperventilation • Muscle pain and weakness • Abdominal pain and nausea

  23. What happened to Patrick? • He inherited a mutation leading to a disease called pyruvate dehydrogenase complex disease (PDCD). • Pyruvate dehydrogenase is an enzyme that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA inside the mitochondria. • The brain depends on glucose as a fuel. PDCD degenerates gray matter in the brain. • Pyruvate accumulates, leading to alanine and lactate accumulation in the blood (lactate acidosis).

  24. CQ9: Why did Patrick become paralyzed? A: He inherited a genetic disease that resulted in the partial loss of an enzyme necessary for aerobic breakdown of glucose. B: The enzyme that is necessary for metabolizing fats was defective. C: He was unable to synthesize muscle proteins due to defective ribosomes. D: He suffered from a severe ion imbalance due to a high salt diet.

  25. CQ12: The loss of which of the following molecules was the most critical for Patrick’s paralysis? A: Pyruvate dehydrogenase B: Acetyl CoA C: Lactate D: ATP

  26. What happened to Patrick? • Although his family tried to care for him at home, Patrick remained in hospitals and nursing homes until he died in 2006. • Patrick died due to pneumonia, sepsis, and renal failure when he was only 21 years old. • His family mourns his loss but feels grateful that he was able to survive for 5 years on a respirator, 4 years beyond his doctor’s predictions.