Eating and Eating Disorders. Arika Zimmerman and Allie Rhodes. “Television presents viewers with two sets of conflicting messages. One suggests that we eat in ways almost guaranteed to make us fat; the other suggests that we strive to remain slim.” – L. Kaufman (1980, p . 45)
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Eating and Eating Disorders Arika Zimmerman and Allie Rhodes
“Television presents viewers with two sets of conflicting messages. One suggests that we eat in ways almost guaranteed to make us fat; the other suggests that we strive to remain slim.” – L. Kaufman (1980, p. 45) • “Research shows that virtually all women are ashamed of their bodies. It used to be adult women, teenage girls, who were ashamed, but now you see the shame down to very young girls – 10, 11 years old. Society’s standard of beauty is an image that is literally just short of starvation for most women.” – Author Mary Pipher, People Magazine, June 3, 1996
Food advertisements • The impact of food advertisements on behavior • Food in television programming and movies • Food advertised in schools • Does television viewing increase childhood obesity? • Eating disorders and body image • Disordered body image • Anorexia and bulimia • Conclusions and solutions
Obesity • American children view an estimated 40,000 advertisements a years. More than half of these ads are food, especially sugared cereals and high-calorie snacks (Harrison & Marske, 2005) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A1W6Ku5bJR4 (Cookie Crisp) • [120 Calories per Cup, 13 Grams of Sugar • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZuVdlrZ1XWA (Reeses Puffs) • [130 Calories Per ¾ Cup, 12 Grams of Sugar]
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDutKuSA0KM (Fridays) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XsqUshEERvE (Hardees) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ER4YVYEmWjo (Coca Cola)
Discussion Questions • Where did you originally learn about food and eating habits? • How do you feel when you see food commercials?
Eating Disorders • Television can serve as an important source of information for young children and teens about food and eating habits. • More American children are becoming obese while more American teenagers continue to suffer from eating disorders. • “For example, a major study of nearly 2,500 middle school teens in North Carolina found that 10% of the girls and 5% of the boys reported vomiting or using laxatives to lose weight.” (Krowchuk, Kreiter, Woods, Sinal, & Durant, 1998)
Other Problems • In a study of 9 and 10 year olds, more than half believed that Ronald McDonald knows what is best for children to eat (Food Commission, 1997). • Healthy foods are advertised less than 3% of the time. • Many food ads contain violence (62%), conflicts (41%), and trickery (20%). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4okJZpq_sPs (Trix Cereal)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b6XfMtaw8aU (2:20) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=24Xa1Nw8eJY • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hibyAJOSW8U (dove) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-_I17cK1ltY (manipulation)
Eating Disorders • Food is rarely used to satisfy hunger. Rather it serves to bribe others or to facilitate social introductions. • Media has an obsession with thinness: 88% of all characters are thin or average body built. • On shows popular with teenagers 94% of characters are below average body weight. • Being overweight provides comic ammunition.
Overweight Characters • Nonrecurring • Fewer Romances • Fewer Friends • Less Leadership • Less Sex • Shown Eating • http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=fvwp&v=fyYtAUJSneQ (Family Guy) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XXJdsKuEyc4 (Mike and Molly) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vbyUUbnkB1c (Cartman) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U4jvm0rLkgs (mean girls)