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Fire Ground Hydraulics. Fire Ground Hydraulics?. 175?. Pump Pressure?. 120?. P.S.I.?. Loss per 100 ft.?. Hose Diameter?. Elevation Loss?. Device Loss?. GPM?. 200?. 150?. Nozzle pressure?. Fire Ground Hydraulics. Single, Selectable Gallonage, & Automatic.

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fire ground hydraulics2
Fire Ground Hydraulics?

175?

Pump Pressure?

120?

P.S.I.?

Loss per 100 ft.?

Hose Diameter?

Elevation Loss?

Device Loss?

GPM?

200?

150?

Nozzle pressure?

fire ground hydraulics3
Fire Ground Hydraulics

Single, Selectable Gallonage, & Automatic

Pump Discharge Pressure equals

Nozzle Pressure + (Total Pressure Loss)

PDP = NP+(FL+DL+EL)

NP = Nozzle Pressure

FL = Friction Loss

DL = Device Loss

EL = Elevation Loss

friction loss
Friction Loss

Hoseline Friction Loss

FL = CQ2L

FL = Hoseline friction loss in PSI

C = Friction loss coefficient*

Q = Flow rate in hundreds of GPM (GPM/100)

L = Hose length in hundreds of feet (Feet/100)

* Refer to NFPA Fire Protection Handbook

elevation pressure loss device loss
Elevation Pressure LossDevice Loss

Elevation Pressure

EP = 0.5H

0.5 = A constant

H = Height in feet

Device Loss

Appliance Friction loss in PSI

calculating for pump discharge pressure selectable or single gallonage or automatic
Calculating for Pump Discharge PressureSelectable or Single Gallonage or Automatic

125 gpm at 100 psi NP on 150 ft. of 1¾” hose

PDP = NP+TPL

TPL = FL = CQ2L

TPL = (15.5)(1.25)2(1.5)

TPL = 36

PDP = 100+36

PDP = 136

calculating for pump discharge pressure selectable change flow setting or automatic
Calculating for Pump Discharge PressureSelectable (Change Flow Setting) or Automatic

150 gpm at 100 psi NP on 150 ft. of 1¾” hose

PDP = NP+TPL

TPL = FL = CQ2L

TPL = (15.5)(1.5)2(1.5)

TPL = 52

PDP = 100+52

PDP = 152

calculating for pump discharge pressure master stream 1 smooth bore tip
Calculating for Pump Discharge PressureMaster Stream 1½” Smooth Bore Tip

598 gpm @ 80 psi NP on 300 ft. of 3” hose

PDP = NP+TPL

TPL = FL+DL

TPL= CQ2L+Device Loss

FL = (.677)(5.98)2(3) = 73

DL = 25

TPL = 73+25 = 98

PDP = 80+98

PDP = 178

hoseline friction loss
Hoseline Friction Loss
  • Coefficients from NFPA Fire Protection Handbook
  • Manufacture, construction, age & condition of hose are determining factors
  • Actual coefficients of friction can be determined
  • Test your hose for actual coefficients
  • Refer to IFSTA Fire Streams Manual for procedures
single selectable nozzles
Single & Selectable Nozzles
  • Pump pressure charts can be made for any hose lay
  • Hydraulic calculations can be pre-planned
  • Communication is key to safe operations
  • When operated at correct pressures, they will deliver the stated flow
  • For multiple lines of different size, flow &/or length, pump to the maximum required pressure & gate the other discharge valves to correct pressure for each line
automatic nozzles
Automatic Nozzles
  • Hydraulic calculations are simpler
  • Nozzle pressure remains constant (typically 100psi)
  • If calculations are incorrect, automatic nozzles will deliver the available flow
  • Maximum reach with available water
  • As nozzles are throttled, pump operator should avoid “chasing” the pressure gauge
  • The goal should be to maintain the minimum pressure necessary for the line