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Puerto Rico Brief History by JoAnn C. Smith (Chair) Population/Government/Social Order by Alex J. Rolfes Religion/L PowerPoint Presentation
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Puerto Rico Brief History by JoAnn C. Smith (Chair) Population/Government/Social Order by Alex J. Rolfes Religion/Language by Zwisel M. Gandia Work/Economy & National/Popular Culture by Elizabeth Krugh Customs/Food/Material Life by Katie Smith. Puerto Rico:.

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slide1

Puerto Rico

Brief History

by JoAnn C. Smith (Chair)

Population/Government/Social Order

by Alex J. Rolfes

Religion/Language

by Zwisel M. Gandia

Work/Economy & National/Popular Culture

by Elizabeth Krugh

Customs/Food/Material Life

by Katie Smith

puerto rico
Puerto Rico:
  • Puerto Rico is located in the Caribbean Ocean
  • Around 100 miles long by 35 miles wide
  • Referred by many as Borinquen
  • San Juan is the capital of Puerto Rico
brief history
Brief History
  • Puerto Rico began after the last Ice Age – Little is known of these people
  • Later, Native Americans arrived and were called the Arawak Indians. They came to the island in three different waves as the Igneri, Ostionoid, and Tainos
  • Arawak Indians called the island Borinquen, which means “the land of the brave lord”
  • The Tainos were a peaceful nation, and a more advanced society – they made carvings in stone, wood, and clay
brief history continued
Brief History Continued…
  • ON Nov 19, 1493, Christopher Columbus sailed in his second voyage to the New World and discovered Puerto Rico
  • Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista
  • Columbus did not stay in Puerto Rico and continued on his journey
brief history continued1
Brief History Continued…
  • In 1508, the first Spanish settlers came to San Juan Bautista looking for gold
  • Their leader was Juan Ponce de Leon
  • He changed the island’s name to Puerto Rico which means rich port
  • The Taino Indians were forced into slavery to mine for gold
brief history continued2
Brief History Continued…
  • In 1898, the U.S. entered the Cuban War for independence against the Spain, and it became the Spanish-American War
  • On Aug 11, 1898, Spain surrender to the U.S.
  • Dec 10, 1898, the Treaty of Paris was signed, which officially ended the Spanish-American War
  • The island of Puerto Rico became territorial control of the United States along with Cuba, the Philippines, and Guam
  • In contrast, Spain lost the last of its empire in the New World
brief history continued3
Brief History Continued…
  • On July 25, 1952, the island became the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico
  • A constitution was enacted giving islanders “limited” self-rule
  • Puerto Rico is not a state, but rather a self-governing possession of the U.S.
brief history continued4
Brief History Continued…
  • Since 1952 to present, Puerto Rico is the only territory that never gained its own independence
  • For this reason, both flags fly next to each other in Puerto Rico
  • To this day, some islanders are for independence, and others are against it
population
Population
  • 3,897,960 People Live in Puerto Rico
  • 70% Live in Cities
    • San Juan
    • Ponce
    • Mayaguez
  • Homogeneous Mix
    • Taino
    • Black Slave Descendents
    • White Spanish Descendents
age and life expectancy
Age and Life Expectancy
  • Median Age
    • Puerto Rico: 33.8 Years
    • United States: 36 Years
  • Life Expectancy
    • Both: 77.4 Years
  • Why?
    • Strong Economies
    • Social Structure
      • Agriculture
      • Industry
slide12

Where Do People Live?

TM-P001. Total Persons: 2000Universe: Total populationCurrent Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent DataPuerto Rico by   County

taino
Taino
  • Once had a population of 30,000
  • Approximate Current Population is Less Than 2,000
    • Highlands
  • Why is This?
    • Disease
    • Emigration
    • Poor Labor Conditions
    • Native Uprising
black slave descendents
Black Slave Descendents
  • 8% of Total Population
  • Ancestors used to restore shrinking Taino work force
  • Slavery Popularized by the Plantation System
white spanish descendents
White Spanish Descendents
  • Currently Make up 80.5% of Population
  • Many of their Ancestors colonized Puerto Rico
religion
Religion
  • Christianity is the main religion
  • 85% of the population are Roman Catholics and 15% includes Protestant and others.
  • Small Jewish community.
  • A smaller number regularly attends religious services.
  • Some ascribe to spiritualism, belief that spirits of the dead inhabit the island.
religion continued
Religion Continued…
  • Others practice Santeria, an Afro-Caribbean belief system brought to Puerto Rico from Cuba.
  • Puerto Rico’s religion includes “Santos”, “Milagros”, “Santeria” and Rosaries.
  • “Santos” are devotional wood carvings of saints and the Virgin Mary in her many manifestations.
  • The carvings of saints probably refer back to the 1600s, when rural populations had few priests and churches but many home altars. 
  • “Milagros” are offerings that are made to a particular saint for help in curing a weakness.
  • Some of the Puerto Rican Catholicism that is practiced incorporates some Taíno and African traditions.
religion continued1
Religion Continued…
  • The celebration of Los Tres Reyes Magos is one of the most important Puerto Rican religious traditions. The Kings arrive on the Feast of the Epiphany, January 6, bringing gifts to children. 
  • In the Bible, the Three Kings journey to Bethlehem bringing gifts of gold, incense and myrrh to Christ the Child.
  • In Puerto Rico, the Three Kings ride Paso Fino horses, a local breed, instead of camels. 
churches and cathedrals
Churches and Cathedrals
  • San Juan Cathedral
  • Construction began in 1840, finally ending in 1852.
  • Remains of the Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon lie on a crypt.
work economy
Work/Economy
  • History of Colonization
  • Relationship to the United States
    • 90% of all exports to the US and 50% of all imports from the US
  • Today considered an industrial economy
work economy continued
Work/Economy Continued…
  • Manufacturing 41% of the GDP
    • Mid 1970s increasing high tech and capital intensive
  • Agriculture 1.4% of the GDP
    • Shifted from sugar and coffee to modern agribusiness
  • Tourism is a big industry
    • 75% of tourist are Americans
  • Problems with Wal-Mart
national popular culture
National/Popular Culture
  • Jibaro
    • “legendary hospitality, simplicity, self-sufficiency, and individuality, his wary evasiveness and dissembling deferentially in the face of authority, and his complacent, easygoing love of the simple pleasures of fiestas, coffee, idle banter, and nature” (Manuel Alonso)
national popular culture1
National/Popular Culture
  • Danza
    • Created from a mix of African and Latin sounds
    • Celebrated by the lower classes

http://www.prfdance.com/history.htm

national popular culture2
National/Popular Culture
  • Bomba and Plena
    • Symbolic of the different cultures in Puerto Rico
    • Bomba has roots in the slave plantation system
    • Plena is believed to have originated in the lower middle classes

http://www.prfdance.com/history.htm

national popular culture3
National/Popular Culture
  • Salsa
    • Originated in the New York Puerto Rican community
    • Tito Puente
national popular culture4
National/Popular Culture
  • Literature
    • Modern literature dispels the myths of the perfect family and addresses the effects of colonialism on culture
    • Jose Luis Gonzalez
national popular culture5
National Sport: Baseball

Learned of baseball through Cuba

Teams were forbidden to play in racist America

Developed their own teams

Roberto Clemente

National/Popular Culture
customs
Puerto Ricans are known for their warm hospitality

greeted with a kiss on the cheek or a combination hug and kiss

Business conducted differently

Business hours

many people are involved in tasks that can usually be completed by one person

Customs
customs weddings
Customs ~ Weddings
  • Twp types: civil and religious
  • Male must ask female’s father for permission
  • Long engagements
  • Bridal doll
customs clothing
Customs ~ Clothing
  • Often vibrantly dressed
  • Women will wear black for extended period of time after death of spouse
slide31
Food
  • cocina criollaor Créole cooking
  • Spanish and American influences
  • Beef, pork, rice, pineapple, papaya, and guava all main ingredients
slide32
Typically three meals a day

Small breakfast consisting of coffee, milk, rolls, and bred

Large lunch eaten midday, lasting for hours

Late dinner around 9:00

Soup very common to start meals

Main meals include stews, meat pies, barbequed pig

Food
slide33
Most common desserts it flan

Coconut main ingredient in desserts

National drink is rum

Used in most alcoholic beverages

Food
leisure and recreation
Leisure and Recreation
  • Sports
    • Baseball
    • Fishing
    • Scuba
    • Horseback riding
  • Shopping
    • Local Shops
    • Shopping malls
language
Language
  • Spanish is the predominant language.
  • Although, the Spanish they speak is a mix with many words borrowed from the pre-Colombian Amerindian tongue right up to modern-day English. American culture has had a progressive effect upon Puerto Rican culture since 1898.
  • The Spanish language basically came from the Spaniards when they colonized Boriken.
  • This language soon replaced the Arawakan dialect, spoken by the indigenous population.
  • By 1530, most of the Tainos, either were forced to work for the Spanish or had become fluent in the language.
  • It was a way of communicating with their fellow masters.
language continued
Language Continued…
  • As the United States, Puerto Rico also has English as one of the official languages.
  • It became officially bilingual in the year 1992, when the governor passed a law that stated that both, Spanish & English would be the official languages.
  • English is spoken for about ¼ of the population.
  • Colonization had a big impact on the languages we speak today. It is from the Taino and Spanish roots that we have the dialect we have today.
government setup
Government Setup
  • Commonwealth
    • Autonomous
    • Self-Governing
    • Does Not Have Statehood in the United States
  • Territory of the United States
interesting governmental rights for puerto ricans
Interesting Governmental Rights for Puerto Ricans
  • Voting in the United States
    • Presidential Primaries
    • No Election Day Privileges
  • President of the United States is the Head of State in Puerto Rico
  • Power Lies in electing Congressmen and Various Leaders
  • Resident commissioner in the United States Congress. This person has no voting power.
  • Puerto Ricans Uphold U.S. Federal Law
power to the people
Power Lies in electing Congressmen and Various Leaders

Governor

Elected Every Four Years

Head of Executive Branch

Senate

27 Members

Two From Each Eight Senatorial District

Eleven Added

House of Representatives

51 Members

Forty Members from each

Eleven Added

Minority Seats

Power to the People
power to the people1
Power to the People
  • Judicial Branch
    • Puerto Rico has its own Supreme Court.
      • Also Subject to the Federal Laws of the United States.
      • If Federal Law is Broken: United States Federal Court System and the Local District Court Collaborate
political parties
Political Parties
  • Popular Democratic Party (PDP)
  • New Progressive Party (PNP)
  • Puerto Rican Independence Party (PIP)
popular democratic party pdp
Popular Democratic Party (PDP)
  • Supports Existing Commonwealth Status
  • Founded in 1938
  • Dominated Puerto Rican Politics Until 1968
    • Defeated by New Progressive Party
      • Main Factor: Divided PDP
new progressive party
New Progressive Party
  • Desires Statehood
    • 28th Most Powerful State
    • Seven to Eight Members of Congress
  • Founded in 1967
  • Major Force in Puerto Rican Politics
puerto rican independence party
Puerto Rican Independence Party
  • Least Popular Party in Puerto Rico
  • Desires Complete Independence from the United States
  • Started in Mid-1940s
conclusion
Conclusion:
  • Puerto Rico has developed onto the only Caribbean island where industry has exceeded primary agricultural production.
  • The people of Puerto Rico have a love of their country, or “patria” such as loyalty to their own culture, way of life, and hospitality
  • Economically, Puerto Rico is still poorer that the poorest state of the Union, Mississippi
  • In comparison, to other islands in the West Indies, Puerto Rico is considered wealthy
  • Puerto Ricans are looking for new ways to keep their economy strong as they continue their relationship with the United States.