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Project Lead The Way Medical Intervention. Contact Information. INSTRUCTOR : Dr. Chad Wilkerson, Ph.D. 1995 Brescia University B.S. Chemistry 1998 Louisiana State University M.S. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

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contact information
Contact Information

INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Chad Wilkerson, Ph.D.

1995 Brescia University B.S. Chemistry

  • 1998 Louisiana State University M.S. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
  • Louisiana State University Ph.D. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
  • Research Scientist at Owensboro Cancer Research Program
  • Adjunct Professor at Owensboro Community and Technical College
  • Adjunct Professor in Dept of Pharmacology and Toxicology at University of Louisville
  • E-MAIL: dwilkerson0029@kctcs.edu
  • WEB SITE: http://lifescienceacademy.weebly.com/mi.html
  • BLACK BOARD: http://elearning.kctcs.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp
medical intervention course description
Medical InterventionCourse Description
  • Students will investigate the variety of interventions involved in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease as they follow the lives of a fictitious family.
  • This course explores:
  • How to prevent and fight infection
  • How to screen and evaluate the code in our DNA
  • How to prevent, diagnose and treat cancer
  • How to prevail when the organs of the body begin to fail
  • You will be exposed to the wide range of interventions related to Immunology, Surgery, Genetics, Pharmacology, Medical Devices, and Diagnostics.
topics for today
Topics For Today

Review Syllabus

  • Grading & Assessment Criteria
  • Web Portfolio
  • Lab Journal
  • Participation
  • Special Projects

Calendar

Class Rules – Code of Conduct

Student Responsibilities

Attendance

Make-up Policy

Begin Activity 1.1.1

grading assessment
Grading & Assessment
  • GRADING
  • 30% - EXAMS: 4 exams (2 exams per semester)– 1 exam per unit
  • 15% - QUIZZES: 14 quizzes (7 quizzes per semester) – frequency to be determined
  • 15% - LAB JOURNAL: includes all assignments and notes
  • 20% - PARTICIPATION: daily requirement – be active and present a positive attitude
  • 20% - SPECIAL PROJECTS: includes presentation, posters, models, and papers
  • A = 90-100%
  • B = 80-89%
  • C = 70-79%
  • D = 60-69%
  • F = Below 60%
grading assessment1
Grading & Assessment
  • EXAMS: 1 exam per unit
  • Format: MC, fill in the blank, true/false, short answer, drawing
  • QUIZZES: 7 quizzes per semester
  • Format: MC, fill in the blank, true/false, short answer, drawing
  • Likely to be online quiz (blackboard)
  • frequency determined by material covered at that time
  • LAB JOURNAL: includes all assignments, all notes, details regarding experiments
  • Format: See example on weebly or blackboard (available on both)
  • PARTICIPATION: daily requirement – be active and present a positive attitude
  • SPECIAL PROJECTS: includes presentations, family tree, models, papers
lab journal
Lab Journal
  • FORMAT:
  • Each Day
  • New Page
  • TOP LEFT:
  • Name: first and last
  • Date: mm/dd/yyyy
  • Unit: Unit 1.1.1
  • Short description of plan for day (1-2 sentences)
  • Continuation?
  • Goal: what are you trying to accomplish today
  • Include all notes and experiments
  • (all data – cut and tape if necessary)
  • CONCLUSION QUESTIONS:
  • New page
  • Name
  • Date
  • Restate question exactly
  • Answer
  • 50 cents at Staples
  • College Ruled
  • 100 sheets per book
  • Available other places
class rules
Class Rules
  • Disruptive behavior will not be tolerated. That includes talking, sleeping, and tardiness.
  • Do not text or use your cell phone while class/lab is in session. If you must be available during an emergency I request that you notify me before class or lab begins. If I notice you texting then you are likely disrupting other students.
  • Phones are to be turned off and put away during quizzes and exams.
  • There will be no eating or drinking in the lab. Students are not allowed to bring in any food or drinks. People who bring food and drinks into the lab will be asked to leave. This is an OSHA requirement.
  • Students are expected to treat fellow students and staff members with respect.
  • OCTC has a zero tolerance rule with regards to fighting and threatening other students or staff. That will include inappropriate e-mails. They will be reported.
  • Students are expected to check their email, BlackBoard and the LSA website often.
attendance
Attendance
  • Students are expected to attend and be on time for each and every class.
      • In order for you to learn, you must be present.
  • The attendance and tardy policies and procedures will be the same as your home high school.
  • The expectation is that you are in the classroom, willing and ready to learn each day.
  • This class is fun but it is also challenging. If you miss class, you will get behind.
  • When your home school activities conflict with LSA we will work with you on an individual basis.
  • Much of what we do is team-based - you will be missed by your group when you are not in class!
pay attention
Pay Attention
  • Students must carefully follow instructions on all assignments, exams, etc.

experiment dealt with enzyme amylase and trypsin

Question: What conclusions can you draw from the protein digestion experiment? (Your answer must refer to the enzyme and molecule involves. Answer in complete sentences)

Answer: This experiment tells me that noone of the amino acid bonds in ay of test tubes were broken.

Question: What conclusions can you draw from the protein digestion experiment? (Your answer must refer to the enzyme and molecule involves. Answer in complete sentences)

Answer: solution was clear yellow tint appeared in the tubes that were left in room temp. These made the glucose reading positive for the ones at room temperature and negative reading for the ones in the hot water.

late work
Late Work

Homework, projects, labs, etc. are due at the beginning of class on the assigned day.

I will not accept late work from students unless they have an excused absence.

It is your responsibility to retrieve the work you missed. You may email me to get missed assignments.

Labs cannot be made up. If you miss a lab, a make-up assignment will be given in its place even if you have an excused absence.

what are we doing this year
What are we doing this Year??
  • Unit 1 - How to Fight Infection
    • The Mystery Infection
    • Antibiotic Treatment
    • The Aftermath: Hearing Loss
    • Vaccination
  • Unit 2 - How to Screen What Is In Your Genes
    • Genetic Testing and Screening
    • Our Genetic Future
  • Unit 3 - How to Conquer Cancer
    • Detecting Cancer
    • Reducing Your Risk
    • Treating Cancer
    • Building a Better Cancer Treatment
  • Unit 4 - How to Prevail When Organs Fail
    • Manufacturing Human Proteins
    • Organ Failure
    • Transplant
    • Building a Better Body
unit 1 the mystery infection overview
Unit 1 The Mystery Infection - Overview

In the opening lesson, you will be exposed to interventions involved in detecting, fighting, and preventing an infectious disease as they investigate a potential outbreak at a fictitious college.

Sue Smith, a freshman in college, is not feeling well. She thinks she just has a cold, but further investigation will reveal something far more serious. You will use various techniques and technologies to diagnose Sue and determine the source of the disease on campus. You will analyze clues found in the history and physical examination of each possible patient, identify pathogens present in body fluids through DNA sequence analysis, and test for the infectious agent using the antibody-based Enzyme-linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA).

You will be introduced to the field of bioinformatics as you explore genetic databases to identify known gene sequences. You will also review principles of human immunity as you learn how antibodies can be used to identify the presence of a disease agent.  

At the conclusion of the investigation, you will outline a plan to stop a potential outbreak on campus and discuss interventions such as antibiotic therapy and vaccination, two topics to be explored in greater detail in the subsequent lessons. 

unit 1 the mystery infection overview1
Unit 1 The Mystery Infection - Overview
  • Understandings
  • Medical interventions help maintain health and homeostasis in the body.
  • A variety of methods can be used to detect and/or identify infectious agents.
  • Knowledge and Skills
  • It is expected that you will:
  • Recognize that medical interventions are measures to improve health or alter the course of an illness and can be used to prevent, diagnose, and treat disease.
  • Describe how bioinformatics, the collection, classification, storage, and analysis of biochemical and biological information using computers, can be used to identify disease pathogens.
  • Describe the applications of bioinformatics in health and wellness.
  • Recognize that diagnostic tests for infectious diseases can provide qualitative results, indicating the presence or absence of disease, as well as quantitative results, indicating the concentration of the infectious agent or of an antibody produced in response to the disease agent.
  • Explain the principles of the Enzyme-linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA) test and describe how antibodies can be used to detect disease.
  •  Analyze connections between individuals in a disease outbreak.
  • Use publically available molecular databases to search for DNA sequences and identify pathogens.
  • Compute serial dilutions and calculate resultant concentrations.
  • Perform ELISA testing to determine the concentration of infectious bacteria in simulated body fluids and identify infected patients.
unit 1 the mystery infection overview2
Unit 1The Mystery Infection - Overview

Essential Questions

What is a medical intervention?

What are the main categories of interventions that function to maintain human health?

How do scientists gather evidence during the potential outbreak of an infectious disease?

What is bioinformatics?

How can DNA sequences be used to identify disease pathogens?

What is an antibody?

How do antibodies identify and inactivate antigens?

How can the ELISA assay be used to detect disease?

Why is it important for doctors to know the concentration of disease antigen present in a patient’s system?

What steps do scientists take to diagnose, treat, and prevent future spread of a disease outbreak? 

unit 1 the mystery infection overview4
Unit 1The Mystery Infection - Overview

What is a medical intervention?

unit 1 how to fight infection
Unit 1 - How to Fight Infection

Activity 1.1.1 Intervention Inventory

Introduction

Look around. Someone in the class is probably wearing glasses or contact lenses. Most likely someone in your school is sporting a cast or using crutches. Maybe you took an aspirin this morning for a raging headache or chugged a sports drink after your morning workout. In some way, each of these devices, medications or treatments, helped people improve their quality of life. Medical interventions are any measure whose purpose is to improve health or alter the course of a disease. Unless faced with a serious illness or injury, we often forgot about the variety of medical interventions that function to keep us well.

Medicine is changing at a rapid pace. Many diseases that were lethal hundreds of years ago can now be controlled or even cured. New devices, medications, procedures, and tests help to extend and improve our quality of life. In both Principles of the Biomedical Sciences and Human Body Systems, you examined interventions related to specific illnesses or diseases. In this course, you will explore medical interventions of the past, present, and even the future.

unit 1 how to fight infection1
Unit 1 - How to Fight Infection

Activity 1.1.1 Intervention Inventory

Goal:

In this activity, you will brainstorm the vast array of medical interventions, big and small, new and old, which function to maintain health and homeostasis in our bodies. You will then work with your team to organize your ideas and group these interventions into categories. This year, you will become acquainted with the members of the Smith family. Their stories will introduce you to modern medical interventions as well as help you visualize the future of medicine. As you follow their family, through good times and bad, be on the lookout for medical interventions.

unit 1 how to fight infection2
Unit 1 - How to Fight Infection
  • Read instructions (Procedure) for Activity 1.1.1
  • Grab a marker and post-it notes
  • Pick a unique number between 1 and 19
  • Individually go to each station and add a post-it note for a medical intervention
    • you have about 10 minutes
unit 1 how to fight infection3
Unit 1 - How to Fight Infection

Do you see a pattern?

Do certain interventions seem to fall into groups or have similar properties or effects?

unit 1 how to fight infection4
Unit 1 - How to Fight Infection

Group A:

1, 4, 11, 16

Group B:

2, 6, 12, 17

Group C:

3, 5, 10, 18

Group D:

7, 9, 13, 15

Group E:

8, 14, 19

unit 1 lesson 1 1 the mystery infection overview
Unit 1 - Lesson 1.1 The Mystery Infection - Overview

What are the main categories of interventions that function to maintain human health?

Thoughts?

Discussions?

unit 1 lesson 1 1 the mystery infection overview1
Unit 1 - Lesson 1.1 The Mystery Infection - Overview

In your lab journal (notebook)

Write down MI categories with examples

complete the conclusion questions (new page) for Activity 1.1.1.

Lab journals will be collected Friday.

If you have any questions or problems email me ASAP!!!

unit 1 the mystery infection family tree
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionFamily Tree

Each unit of the course will introduce family bulletins

Information from the family bulletin should be used to generate a complete Smith family tree

The Smith family tree will be constructed using Inspiration software

Things to include:

Age

Gender (male or female) – use pedigree designations

Medical history

All of the medical interventions this person has encountered

Relationship among individuals – use pedigree designations

Genetic information will only be added if appropriate

unit 1 the mystery infection family tree1
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionFamily Tree

Example: The Kennedy’s

Joe Kennedy - Elizabeth Kennedy

Jack Kennedy - Jackie Kennedy

Joe Kennedy

Bobby Kennedy

Ted Kennedy

JFK - Children

Arabella Kennedy

Caroline Kennedy

John Kennedy, Jr.

Patrick Kennedy

unit 1 the mystery infection activity 1 1 2 investigating an outbreak
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionActivity 1.1.2 Investigating an Outbreak

What do you think of when you hear the term infection?

unit 1 the mystery infection activity 1 1 2 investigating an outbreak1
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionActivity 1.1.2 Investigating an Outbreak

What is an infection?

Infection is the invasion of a host organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.

unit 1 the mystery infection activity 1 1 2 investigating an outbreak2
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionActivity 1.1.2 Investigating an Outbreak

Are there different types of infections?

Infectious agents:

Viruses

Bacteria

Prions (misfolded protein)

Parasites (nematodes, arthropods)

Fungi

unit 1 the mystery infection activity 1 1 2 investigating an outbreak4
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionActivity 1.1.2 Investigating an Outbreak
  • Ebola
  • disease of humans and other primates
  • caused by the ebola virus
  • Late Stages:
  • Dec. liver & kidney function
  • Internal & external bleeding
unit 1 the mystery infection activity 1 1 2 investigating an outbreak5
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionActivity 1.1.2 Investigating an Outbreak
  • Strep throat
  • Streptococcus bacteria
  • gram-positive bacterium
  • Symptoms:
  • Fever
  • sore throat
  • enlarged lymph nodes
  • Cause of 37% of sore throats among children
  • Cause of 10-15% of sore throats among adults
unit 1 the mystery infection activity 1 1 2 investigating an outbreak6
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionActivity 1.1.2 Investigating an Outbreak
  • Necatoramericanus (Hookworm)
  • Nematode that lives in the small intestine of hosts
  • Parasitic infection
  • 740 million people
  • Symptoms:
  • abdominal pain, diarrhea,
  • cramps, weight loss,
  • anorexia and iron deficiency
unit 1 the mystery infection activity 1 1 2 investigating an outbreak7
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionActivity 1.1.2 Investigating an Outbreak
  • Athlete's foot
  • most commonly caused by the fungi Trichophytonrubrum or T. mentagrophytes
  • Fungal infection
  • Symptoms:
  • Scaling
  • Flaking
  • Itching
  • Inflammation
  • blistering
unit 1 the mystery infection activity 1 1 2 investigating an outbreak8
Unit 1 - The Mystery InfectionActivity 1.1.2 Investigating an Outbreak

Essential Question 3

How do scientists gather evidence during the potential outbreak of an infectious disease?

Activity 1.1.2 and 1.1.2.SR sheets

slide43
DNA

What does DNA stand for?

What is DNA?

What does DNA do?

Who discovered DNA?

Where is DNA found?

slide44
DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

slide45
DNA

What is DNA?

What does DNA do?

dna comprised of 4 nucleotides
There are only

4 DNA nucleotides

adenine

thymine

cytosine

guanine

DNA Comprised of 4 Nucleotides
dna rna protein
DNA → RNA → Protein

DNA carries genetic information

that codes for proteins

DNA is transcribed into RNA (DNA → RNA )

RNA is translated into protein (RNA → Protein)

Proteins are used for

Enzymes (catalysis), structures, antibodies, hormones, etc

slide49
DNA

Who discovered DNA?

history of dna1
History of DNA

Information from other sources including X-ray diffraction studies from Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Franklin died so she wasn’t eligible for the Nobel Prize.

slide52
DNA

Where is DNA found?

slide54
DNA

Is DNA found anywhere else?

mitochondrial dna mtdna
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
  • In multicellular organisms, mitochondrial DNA is double stranded and codes for 37 genes and containing approximately 16,600 base pairs
  • Each mitochondrion is estimated to contain 2-10 mtDNA copies
  • mtDNA is derived from the circular genomes of the bacteria that were engulfed by the early ancestors of today's eukaryotic cells
    • Endosymbiotic Theory
  • mtDNA is inherited maternally inherited
  • Of the 37 genes:
  • 13 are for proteins (enzymes) involved in oxidative phosphorylation
  • 22 are for transfer RNA (tRNA) and 2 are for ribosomal RNA (rRNA) which help assemble amino acids into functioning proteins
nuclear dna
Nuclear DNA
  • Human Genome
  • 3 billion base pairs
  • Organized into 23 paired chromosomes
  • Approx 20-25,000 genes
hemoglobin
Hemoglobin
  • Gene found on chromosome 11
  • Beta globin Protein
  • Primary component of RBCs
    • 4 sub-units
    • 2 of Alpha-globin
    • 2 of Beta-globin
    • Each carries 1 oxygen molecule
beta globin
Beta Globin
  • People with sickle cell have abnormal hemoglobin
unit 1 the mystery infection overview5
Unit 1The Mystery Infection - Overview

Essential Questions

What is a medical intervention?

What are the main categories of interventions that function to maintain human health?

How do scientists gather evidence during the potential outbreak of an infectious disease?

What is bioinformatics?

How can DNA sequences be used to identify disease pathogens?

What is an antibody?

How do antibodies identify and inactivate antigens?

How can the ELISA assay be used to detect disease?

Why is it important for doctors to know the concentration of disease antigen present in a patient’s system?

What steps do scientists take to diagnose, treat, and prevent future spread of a disease outbreak? 

slide64

How can you determine a concentration?

  • How is this relevant to health/medicine?
absorbance1
Absorbance

Why is a red ball red?

Any object will appear red when it absorbs all wavelengths of visible light except for red

So how does knowing the frequency of light that is absorbed help you determine the concentration?

absorbance2
Absorbance

Beer-Lambert Law (aka Beer’s Law)

A=ebc

A is absorbance (no units)e is the molar absorbtivity (units = L/mol/cm)b is the path length of the sample (units = centimeters)c is the concentration of the compound in solution (units = mol/L)

** molar absorbtivity is the same as molar extinction coefficient

absorbance3
Absorbance

? 1 2 3 4 5 6

Unknown Set of Standards

Unknown Set of Standards

absorbance6
Absorbance

Equation of a line → y = mx + b

antibodies
Antibodies

What is an antibody?

antibodies1
Antibodies

An antigen-binding immunoglobulin, produced by B cells, that functions as the effector in an immune response

antibodies2
Antibodies

Important regions of an antibody

antibodies3
Antibodies

5 known antibody isotypes

IgA

IgD

IgE

IgG

IgM

absorbance7
Absorbance

Increasing wavelength →

unit 1 1 summary1
Unit 1.1 Summary

The Mystery Infection

Medical Interventions are involved in detecting, fighting, and preventing infectious diseases

In this Unit we learned about MI as we investigated a potential outbreak at a fictitious college

unit 1 1 summary2
Unit 1.1 Summary

Essential Questions

What is a medical intervention?

What are the main categories of interventions that function to maintain human health?

How do scientists gather evidence during the potential outbreak of an infectious disease?

What is bioinformatics?

How can DNA sequences be used to identify disease pathogens?

What is an antibody?

How do antibodies identify and inactivate antigens?

How can the ELISA assay be used to detect disease?

Why is it important for doctors to know the concentration of disease antigen present in a patient’s system?

What steps do scientists take to diagnose, treat, and prevent future spread of a disease outbreak? 

unit 1 1 summary3
Unit 1.1 Summary

Family Bulletin #1 – Meet the Smiths

- family tree

unit 1 1 summary4
Unit 1.1 Summary

Activity 1.1.2 – Investigating an Outbreak

A number of patients showed up at infirmary

Sue, Jill, Anthony, Wanda, Maggie, Maria, Arnie

Objective: To determine cause of illness of each patient

Analyzed medical history, symptoms, cause of illness, possible routes of transmission

four major illnesses – bacterial meningitis, infectious mononucleosis, Strep throat, and influenza

unit 1 1 summary5
Unit 1.1 Summary
  • Activity 1.1.3 - Using DNA to Identify Pathogens
  • You are introduced to the field of bioinformatics as you learned how to analyze DNA to identify pathogens
  • Questions:
  • How can scientists identify specific bacteria when they are amplifying and studying the same region of DNA in each species?
  • How can DNA sequencing be used to identify genetic risk for certain diseases and disorders?
unit 1 1 summary6
Unit 1.1 Summary

Activity 1.1.3

BLAST results show that the Neisseriameningitidis bacterium is found in Sue’s system.

Neisseriameningitidis bacterium is the leading cause of?

Bacterial Meningitis

Meningitis is an infection found where in the body?

The fluid of a person's spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain

unit 1 1 summary7
Unit 1.1 Summary

Problem 1.1.4 – What is the Concentration?

You were presented with a 1L container of solution with an unknown amount of solute and asked to devise a method to determine the concentration of the solute.

What was the purpose of this exercise (activity)?

What is a spectrophotometer?

How can a spectrophotometer be used to investigate a disease?

unit 1 1 summary8
Unit 1.1 Summary

Activity 1.1.5 - ELISA

ELISA assays were used to detect the presence of the Neisseriameningitidis antigen.

What is an ELISA?

What are the types of ELISA assays?

How does an ELISA work?

unit 1 1 summary9
Unit 1.1 Summary

Activity 1.1.5

You were asked to diagram or model how the ELISA test can be used to detect Neisseriameningitidis.

unit 1 1 summary10
Unit 1.1 Summary

Activity 1.1.5

An ELISA assay can provide qualitative or quantitative results. What does this mean??

unit 1 1 summary11
Unit 1.1 Summary

Activity 1.1.5

Serial Dilutions

What does serial dilutions have to do with an ELISA?

unit 1 1 summary12
Unit 1.1 Summary

Activity 1.1.5

Bioinformatics data and lab testing will eventually reveal the following results:

Patient Diagnosis

Sue - Bacterial meningitis

Jill - Bacterial meningitis

Anthony - Influenza

Wanda - Infectious mononucleosis

Maggie - Strep throat

Maria - Bacterial meningitis

Arnie - Influenza

Marco - Bacterial meningitis

Alvin - Infectious mononucleosis

Alvin does not submit to molecular testing; however, his association with Wanda and his symptoms will lead students to a diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis.

unit 1 1 summary13
Unit 1.1 Summary
  • Activity 1.1.5
  • Outbreak Assessment:
  • Who is patient zero on campus?
  • Sue
  • How did this disease spread on campus?
  • One possible hypothesis: Sue brought the bacteria back from her visit to the other college
  • Jill lives with Sue and plays on the same sports team, they share many cups, utensils and water bottles.
  • Either Jill or Sue passed the infection to Maria, who is always in their room.
  • Sue had lab with Marco. They may have shared a soda during the break and had other contact leading to transmission of the bacterium
unit 1 1 summary14
Unit 1.1 Summary
  • Activity 1.1.5
  • Outbreak Assessment:
  • What is the appropriate treatment?
  • Use antibiotics to treat those infected
  • What other medical interventions should be used?
  • Provide the bacterial meningitis vaccine to those who are unaffected
  • Test other students at the college that Sue visited
unit 1 1
Unit 1.1

Turn in lab notebooks

By the end of the day Saturday – Web Portfolio