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Measuring process improvement: Defining and delivering actionable KPIs using SAP NetWeaver Business Intelligence. Dr. Bjarne Berg Director SAP BI MyITgroup - A VIP consulting company. What We’ll Cover …. Introduction & definitions Defining, Prioritizing, & Implementing KPIs

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slide1

Measuring process improvement: Defining and delivering actionable KPIsusing SAP NetWeaver Business Intelligence

Dr. Bjarne Berg

Director SAP BI

MyITgroup - A VIP consulting company

what we ll cover
What We’ll Cover …
  • Introduction & definitions
  • Defining, Prioritizing, & Implementing KPIs
  • Core KPIs (sales, finance & supply chain)
  • Examples of dashboards, scorecards & cockpits
  • Top-10 rules for performance management design & development roadmap
  • Wrap-up
slide3

What we will cover..

How to create a strategy and a roadmap for defining, prioritizing, & implementing KPIs for process improvement.

Look at which KPIs are easiest to put in place & which require greater effort when analyzing sales, finance & materials performance.

Gain insight into how others use dashboards, scorecards, & cockpits to deliver KPIs to stakeholders.

Explore the top-10 rules for designing a performance management solution, along with suggested SAP applications and tools.

How to avoid common pitfalls, such as poor cockpit construction and performance, & emphasis on KPIs that few care about.

dashboard scorecards and cockpits
Dashboard, Scorecards, and Cockpits
  • Many companies and people confuse the concepts of dashboards, scorecards, and cockpits. They vary in terms of purpose, usage, source, data, and measures
  • Most SAP NetWeaver BI systems fall into the cockpits or scorecard category

Definition KPI: “The level of achievement expected of the average resource given the current operating environment”

performance measures

Customer Measures

Financial Measures

  • % Sales of New Products
  • Customers Acquired
  • Customer Satisfaction
  • Market Share
  • ROI and ROA
  • Revenue Growth

Internal Process Measures

Innovation & Learning Measures

  • Product Time to Market
  • Unit Manufacturing Cost
  • Days Supply of Inventory
  • New Product Introduction
  • Management Skills
  • Employee Turnover
Performance Measures

Performance measures are carefully selected set of measures derived from strategies, goals, & objectives that represents a tool to communicate strategic direction to the organization for motivating change.

These form the basis to plan, budget, structure the organization, and to control results.

  • The Three KPI Dimensions:
  • What to Measure
  • How to Measure
  • How to Interpret
what we ll cover6
What We’ll Cover …
  • Introduction & definitions
  • Defining, Prioritizing, & Implementing KPIs
  • Core KPIs (sales, finance & supply chain)
  • Examples of dashboards, scorecards & cockpits
  • Top-10 rules for performance management design & development roadmap
  • Wrap-up
encourage wide array of measures the three types of indicators
Encourage Wide Array of Measures - The Three Types of Indicators
  • Lagging - historical look at past performance (quarterly revenue, hours off due to job related injury, employee turnover)
  • Leading - predictive of future results (safety training completion rate, scheduled maintenance compliance rate, grievances)
  • Real-Time – where things are right now (inventory levels, employee count, contractual obligations outstanding)

4 Signs of a Good Indicator:

  • Tracks mission critical outcomes and activities
  • Is influenced by productive behavior but can’t be easily manipulated by your team
  • Something that all team members can focus their efforts on
  • Value of measuring exceeds cost of measuring
the 7 kpi commandments
The 7 KPI “Commandments”

Performance indicators should have a sponsor, the sponsor is the person or organization element responsible for the definition of the indicator and its purpose and the maintenance thereof

A KPI may be ”typed” as internal, or “customer facing”

May be linked to some form of external analysis technique, such as SIGMA Six, the EFQM etc.

Must have a clearly defined aim or purpose.

Must have a descriptive name or title. The name should be as short as possible, but be meaningful.

May have an effective date, and a redundancy date. It is likely that a KPI will have a life span.

By definition, a KPI is a measure or yardstick. It follows that there must be a method or formula for calculating the measure itself and associated scores

Source: Performance Management Association (PMA) - 2006

slide9

Use the Value Chain to Identify KPI Requirements

Use the value chain as a guide to identify information needed to analyze performance measures that support strategies

What we want is a “war room” like Europe’s SHAPE headquarters to monitor the state of enterprise & the direction

What tasks must be completed on a regular basis to add value to the end “customers” of the process?

What key events need to occur for the business to be successful?

How can we analyze the success of the business and progress toward that success?

what we ll cover10
What We’ll Cover …
  • Introduction & definitions
  • Defining, Prioritizing, & Implementing KPIs
  • Core KPIs (sales, finance & supply chain)
  • Examples of dashboards, scorecards & cockpits
  • Top-10 rules for performance management design & development roadmap
  • development roadmap - operational, managerial & executive KPIs
  • Wrap-up
slide11

Use the Value Chain to Identify KPI Requirements

  • Equipment/ Labor (Utilization)
  • Headcount
  • Process Steps (Number)
  • Product Development (Cost)
  • Product Development (Cycle Time)
  • Product Introduction (Number)
  • Schedule/ Cost Estimates (Accuracy)
  • Equipment/ Labor (Utilization)
  • Design quality (rework count)
  • Headcount
  • More…
  • Process Steps (Number)
  • Purchase Discounts (Value)
  • Purchase Order (Volume/ Frequency)
  • Purchase Price Variance (Value)
  • Purchasing (Cost)
  • Purchasing (Cycle Time)
  • Supplier Defects (Number)
  • Supplier Lead Time
  • Supplier On-time Delivery
  • Suppliers (Number)

The first step in KPI definition is to determine what is the value driver of your organization’s success. The KPIs should be different for a sales and marketing firm, a manufacturing driven firm or a service firm

slide12

KPI Requirements - Manufacturing

  • Changeover/ Turnaround (Cycle Time)
  • Defects/ Off-Quality (Cost)
  • Defects/ Off-Quality (Volume/ Quantity)
  • Engineering Design Changes (Cycle Times)
  • Engineering Design Changes (Volume/ Frequency)
  • Equipment/ Labor (Utilization)
  • Parts/ Stock Keeping Units (Number)
  • Inventory Work In Process (Level/ Value)
  • Process Steps (Number)
  • Headcount
  • Rework (Cost)
  • Scrap/ Waste (Cost)
  • Manufacturing (Cycle Time)
  • Production (Lot/Batch Size)
  • Production Schedule (Accuracy/ Fulfillment)
  • Productivity/ Throughput
  • Quality of Service
  • Rework (Volume/ Frequency)
  • Scheduled Maintenance (Cost)
  • Scheduled Maintenance (Cycle Time)
  • Scheduled Maintenance (Frequency)
  • Theft/ Shrinkage (Cost)
  • Unscheduled Maintenance (Cost)
  • Unscheduled Maintenance (Cycle Time)
  • Unscheduled Maintenance (Frequency)
slide13

KPI Requirements – Distribution of Products

Plan/ Design

Products/

Services

Produce

Products/

Service

Distribute Products

Market / Sell Products / Services

Manage Customer Service

Perform

Procurement

  • Carriers (Number)
  • Dock-to-Stock (Cycle Time)
  • Equipment/ Labor (Utilization)
  • Headcount
  • Inventory (Accuracy)
  • Inventory Finished Goods (Level/ Value)
  • Inventory Finished Goods (Turnover)
  • Inventory In transit (Level/ Value)
  • Inventory Raw Materials (Level/ Value)
  • Inventory Raw Materials (Turnover)
  • Picking/ Packing (Cycle Time)
  • Process Steps (Number)
  • Picking (Accuracy)
  • Many others…

Measures in this area can be supported by SAP modules that captures events such as SAP’s Supply Chain Event manager (SCEM)

slide14

KPI Requirements – Marketing & Sale of Products/Services

Plan/ Design

Products/

Services

Produce

Products/

Service

Distribute Products

Market / Sell Products / Services

Manage Customer Service

Perform

Procurement

  • In-Stock Ratio on Promoted items/ Rainchecks
  • Marketing (Cost)
  • Marketing (Cycle Time)
  • Marketing Effectiveness (Cost)
  • Marketing Effectiveness (Cycle Time)
  • Product/ Brand Forecast (Accuracy)
  • Forecast (Accuracy)
  • Forecast (Cycle Time)
  • Headcount
  • Event ROI
  • Shelf/ Floor Allotment
  • Shopping Frequency
  • SKU’s (Number)
  • Traffic Count
  • Transaction Size
  • Advertising Effectiveness (Awareness)
  • Advertising Effectiveness (Perception)
  • Annual Purchase Volume
  • Closure/ Conversion Rate
  • Customer Complaints (Volume/Frequency)
  • Customer Retention Rates
  • Customer Returns (Number)
  • Design/ Formulation/ Package Changes (Number)
  • Distribution Channels (Number)
  • Product/ Brand Forecast (Cycle Time)
  • Variance to Plan (Market Share)
  • Variance to Plan (Production Cost/ Volume)
  • Variance to Plan (Sales Value/ Units)
slide15

Use the Value Chain to Identify KPI Requirements

Plan/ Design

Products/

Services

Produce

Products/

Service

Distribute Products

Market / Sell Products / Services

Manage Customer Service

Perform

Procurement

  • Adjusted Orders (Volume/Frequency)
  • Backorders/ Stockouts (Volume/Frequency)
  • Billing (Cost)
  • Billing (Cycle Time)
  • Credit/ Debit Memos (Volume/ Frequency)
  • Customer Satisfaction Rating
  • Equipment/ Labor (Utilization)
  • Headcount
  • Inquiries & Complaints (Volume/Frequency)
  • On-time Delivery Rate
  • Order Fill Ratio
  • Order Fulfillment (Cycle Time)
  • Order Processing (Cycle Time)
  • Order Processing (volume)
  • Process Steps (Number)
  • Response/ Wait Time
  • Warranties/ Claims/ Returns (Cost)
  • Warranties/ Claims/ Returns (Volume/Frequency)

It is just as important to retain a customer as it is to attract a new one.

KPIs can help an organization with high customer turn-over to refocus, and shift some of the marketing budget to customer retention.

slide16

Performance Measures by Information Category

You can also organize KPIs around information categories or key organizational objects such as store, warehouse, balance sheet etc.

  • Store inventory performance
  • System inventory per store
  • Store inventory per store
  • Sales floor inventory per store
  • Backroom inventory per store
  • DC inventory per store
  • Backroom % store inventory
  • YTD inventory turn
  • YTD inventory turn
  • Inventory performance
  • BOM inventory
  • EOM inventory
  • Turnover
  • Monthly average inventory
  • Shortage
  • P&L
  • Balance Sheet
  • GM
  • AP leveraging
  • Working capital amount
  • AR turn
  • Inventory turnover
  • Average inventory
  • Delinquency rate
  • ROI

Inventory

  • Store performance
  • Sales per payroll hour
  • Units sold per payroll hour
  • Average sale per unit
  • Average units per customer
  • Average transaction per payroll hour
  • Average sales per customer
  • Average hourly rate

Performance Measures

Income Statement

Balance Sheet

Store

Retail

  • Gross Margin
  • Markdown
  • Stock Shortage
  • Inventories at retail
  • Marketing ROI
  • Industry measures: PMU%, RMU%, CMU%, ESMU%

08

where do i start
Where do I start?

Do NOT include any measure just because:

  • The data is easily available
  • It is already being used
  • The manager likes those numbers
  • It can be embarrassing to the organization if we don’t include some ‘good’ numbers
  • There is a political pressure to include a what others have done in the past

Be very carefully what KPIs you include:

Things are not always measured because they are important.

They are important because they are measured!

what we ll cover18
What We’ll Cover …
  • Introduction & definitions
  • Defining, Prioritizing, & Implementing KPIs
  • Core KPIs (sales, finance & supply chain)
  • Examples of dashboards, scorecards & cockpits
  • Top-10 rules for performance management design & development roadmap
  • development roadmap - operational, managerial & executive KPIs
  • Wrap-up
background
Background

Sedgwick county has 21 cities, including the city of Wichita with 354,000 people. It also has 27 townships and an area of 1,008 square miles.

Sedgwick County is home to a number of aviation-related industries and is known as the “Air Capital of the World.”

background cont
Background (cont.)
  • The county has many organizations, such as public health, fire, emergency medical services (ambulances), sheriff and jail operation, forensic center, code enforcement, registrar of deeds, county clerk, criminal justice (district attorney, district courts), highways, mental health services, parks, solid waste, housing, election, HR, treasurer, tax collection, county zoo and coliseums, and much more …
  • A major challenge was to measure these many services effectively to improve accountability and achieve transparency.
determine where you need to go and the steps to get there
Determine where you need to go and the steps to get there…
  • Develop Management Story
  • Develop Primary KPI and Secondary KPIs
  • Group KPIs into KPI Themes

How Do You Manage? - Three Components of a Management Story

  • Primary Outcome: KPI
  • Identify Service Requirements (accuracy, timeliness, quality, volume)
  • Manage Resources to Meet Service Requirements (people, tools, process, communicate with funding source)
a user experience example
A User Experience Example

Our first step is to navigate to the departmental KPIs

22

accessing frames
Accessing Frames

Now we want to explore the summary cockpit for Public Safety

23

accessing summary cockpits
Accessing Summary Cockpits

These KPIs are weighted measures of six KPIs for the emergency management services. The index is color coded for acceptable performance levels.

We can click on any graph to enlarge it …

24

drilling down to details
Drilling Down to Details

Here we can see that the index has turned red. That indicates that further research is warranted. We added a new drill-down button to make user navigation easier …

25

Note: This is sample data from the test system

exploring the emergency management profile
Exploring the Emergency Management Profile

The profile does not contain benchmark data, but is informative about the activities. Here we explore the number of EMS 911 calls.

From the EMS profile, users can access:

Primary KPIs for the organization

Program outcome KPIs

Tertiary KPIs to manage the operations

KPIs are for all levels of the organization

26

program outcomes for ems
Program Outcomes for EMS

Program outcomes include detailed benchmarks for monthly performance and are coded red, yellow, and green based on actual data. Here we see ambulance performance for one month.

- Building hierarchies of measures gives everyone, at all levels of the organization, some benefits of using the cockpit.

- Getting the management to use the same tool is a major benefit of SAP NetWeaver BI.

27

tertiary operational indicators for ems
Tertiary Operational Indicators for EMS

The tertiary indicators are most important for the director of Emergency Management Services. It may be combination of survey data taken periodically and system data loaded monthly.

Don’t be afraid of merging periodical data, such as customer satisfaction and employee ratings taken every six months, with operational data from source systems

28

tertiary financial indicators for ems
Tertiary Financial Indicators for EMS

By making financial data easily accessible with the operational data, the department managers see a greater benefit of using the cockpits.

The data can be annual, monthly, or weekly, as long as it is used for trend lining and management decisions.

Be careful about adding daily information. When doing so, you are leaving management cockpits and have started building dashboards which have different usage communities and a variety of different tools

29

back to the walls
Back to the Walls

This case study has 821 KPIs for management and operations – we only looked at one small area with 18 KPIs so far. Let us look at the senior management’s view of the cockpit and the community profile …

For senior management, the KPIs tend to have more broad applications in terms of scope and level of aggregation. Policies and budgets are based on overall performance and not the day-to-day operations which may fluctuate by season.

Dashboards – not cockpits, are used for operational management

30

the senior management community profile
The Senior Management Community Profile

The Community Profile is a great way to summarize the organization in terms of descriptive statistics. It is a very high-level overview of the status of the organization.

For commercial enterprises, this is an area that may contain a summary of all employees, locations by demographic information and organizational model, and/or summary production volumes or sales volumes for last quarter, or year, and trend lines. Keep the information very summarized

31

the community profile of an organization
The Community Profile of an Organization

The community profile should be organized in sub-categories that are informative, interesting, and have long-term trend line value.

This example has six sub-groupings of measures and a total of 34 KPIs.

For example purposes, we will explore the long-term Economic trend lines

community profile economic indicators
Community Profile – Economic Indicators

For long-term indicators, don’t be afraid to use external data and data that has annual updates. The collection of this data is simple, low cost, and provides everyone with a shared knowledgebase.

In the community profile, the data should be long-term trends and relevant to strategic decision making

keep the cockpit useful for a large community
Keep the Cockpit Useful for a Large Community

By keeping the cockpit “wide” and for a large user community, we were able to provide a shared view of a highly diverse government organization

Build a “wide” cockpit with shared measures that is widely available to all users

34

query performance and simplification in infocubes
Query Performance and Simplification in Infocubes

For Non-SAP data

Since single KPI values for a given department and period are stored in the SQL Server and transmitted to BW. The Queries takes on average 0.2 seconds !!!!

For SAP data

The details are kept in the DSO and the InfoCube has only the single value for the department for the period. Query speed is therefore only 0.2 seconds on average…

automating thresholds and the kpi data from non sap systems
Automating Thresholds and the KPI Data from Non-SAP Systems

The data table in SQL server provides a set of columns that capture the summary of the results for the period for a department.

This allows the department to update the KPI values for a short time period to correct any errors (done in a simple ASP page)

Threshold values (Red, Yellow and Green) are captured for each period, so that the history of historical thresholds can be preserved.

rules for graphs and real estate
Try to avoid empty spaces, but don’t force unrelated measures into the cockpit view — it confuses users

Don’t use as many types of graphs as possible,

and never mix more than 3 types of graphs. If you

use more, users have to interpret the pictures as well as the data.

Missing data

points add

irritation.

(it is hard to hide

bad data in a

cockpit)

Rules for Graphs and Real Estate

37

37

cockpit rules for graphs and real estate cont
There is nothing wrong with using the same type of graphs on a cockpit (e.g., tachometers or line charts). Users adapt quickly and can absorb the information faster.Cockpit Rules for Graphs and Real Estate (cont.)

38

tracking changes over time annual measures in context
Tracking Changes Over Time – Annual Measures in Context

For an organization to act strategically, you need annual performance measures to see the big picture. You often have to merge measures also.

This is of little value to the operational managers, but of great value to the CFO, CEO, CxO, and upper-level executives.

When the executives are looking at their organization, they are frequently examining external data at an annual level

39

use of complex graphing of annual measures
Use of Complex Graphing of Annual Measures

Sometimes measures have little value unless they are seen in context of other indicators. You can use complex graphing with different scales to address this.

Example: Number of fatalities in road accidents have limited value in assessing vehicle safety without seeing the context of total number of accidents.

We can click on the graph to examine this closer

40

use of complex graphing of annual measures cont
Use of Complex Graphing of Annual Measures (cont.)

We now have two measures over five years of different scales. However, you can merge these in a single graph with two scales.

41

kpi change management process
KPI Change Management Process

IT responsible

Change Request form

Approved?

Integration tested

QA environment

No

Business responsible

Sr. mgmt. responsible

Yes

Yes

Approved?

Moved to

production

No

Submission

No

Approved?

System tested

Devl. environment

Complete?

Scheduled

No

Yes

Yes

Change Request form

Review

recommended?

Developed

Unit Tested

Devl. environment

No

Yes

Approved?

No

Yes

the change management form page 1
The Change Management Form – Page 1
  • To make this process work, you need a formal instrument.
  • The instrument can be online (i.e., a Web page), electronic (Word document), or a paper-based system.
  • The form should contain at least these fields:

The front page that the requestor fills out

the change management form page 2
The Change Management Form – Page 2
  • This page is used by the system administrator or the project team
  • The purpose is to have controlled changes that are scheduled and tested appropriately

The back page that the system admin and approver fill out

44

what sap tool should i use other options
What SAP Tool Should I Use? – Other Options

There are many options and sometimes the choice is based on what you are familiar with and whether you enjoy using new tools

what we ll cover46
What We’ll Cover …
  • Introduction & definitions
  • Defining, Prioritizing, & Implementing KPIs
  • Core KPIs (sales, finance & supply chain)
  • Examples of dashboards, scorecards & cockpits
  • Top-10 rules for performance management design & development roadmap
  • Wrap-up
top 10 rules for performance management design
Top-10 rules for performance management design

1. Keep KPIs at an aggregated level. If it is a list of numbers it is performance measures and not KPIs.

2. Use statistical methods to determine what your KPIs should be.

The objective is to increase net income. Question: Can you determine what the KPI should be by looking at this report?

top 10 rules for performance management design48
Top-10 rules for performance management design

2. Answer: Use a correlation matrix. Here we see what is correlated with net income & what is not. These are the primary KPIs for this objective.

3. Keep detailed data in a Data Store Object (DSO), and roll it up to InfoCubes for analysis. Use even more summarized cubes for your KPIs. Query performance on dashboards are critical to your success.

4. IT does not own KPIs. Make sure your have a change control board and executive (not senior management), sponsorship.

top 10 rules types of kpis
Top-10 rules – Types of KPIs

5. Strategic KPIsTime-horizon: 6 months to 5+ years and should be forward looking based on historical and market data. Users are CxOs, shareholders and board of directors.

Ideal measures are summarized measures such as obsolete product mix (sales trends), return on equity/Investments (ROE/ROI), weighted average cost of capital (WACC), market segmentation, customer segmentation

6. Informational KPIsTime horizon: 1-12 months and is for senior & middle management. Ideal KPIs include production data, vendor performance, monthly and quarterly reports, division profit & loss KPIs, inventory, employee data etc.

7. Operational KPIs Time horizon: 1 day to 1 month. Changes outside tolerances require immediate action. User are line managers and operators. Typical KPIs include shipments, production plans, transportation, customer complaints, stock requirements, capacity management.

top 10 rules assigning kpi weights
Top-10 rules – Assigning KPI weights

8. Create KPIs that are clearly defined & assign weights to them. We can take example #2 further (income statement), and use regression analysis to tell us how much each factor should be weighted:

Result: Monthly sales forecast model (99.97% accurate):

Net Income = €128.86 + (0.42 * sales amount) + (0.63 * manufacturing cost)

– (0.56* other expenses) – (0.29* tax amount)

(guess what my KPIs & weights will be)

top 10 rules the kpi roadmap how
Top -10 rules: The KPI Roadmap - How?

9. Follow these work steps to create an executionable KPI Roadmap strategy:

10. Use a database to define, maintain and document your work. Give each KPI a number (i.e. “KPI-252 Sales growth per store per month”). Lotus Notes, SAP collaboration rooms and similar document handling databases are great tools.

Do not start the project feeling constrained by the current system. (systems should not drive business strategy!)

what we ll cover52
What We’ll Cover …
  • Introduction & definitions
  • Defining, Prioritizing, & Implementing KPIs
  • Core KPIs (sales, finance & supply chain)
  • Examples of dashboards, scorecards & cockpits
  • Top-10 rules for performance management design & development roadmap
  • development roadmap - operational, managerial & executive KPIs
  • Wrap-up
7 key points to take home
7 Key Points to Take Home
  • Senior management (CxO level) drives KPI definition projects
  • KPI definition is not normally an IT project. The Project manager should be a respected individual from the business.
  • KPIs should be value chain drive, linked to outcomes & statistically proven relevant.
  • The measures should be further divided into strategic, informational & operational. All KPIs should result in actionable outcomes, but at different level & time horizons.
  • Technology should take a back seat in KPI definitions. SAP have many great presentation tools & more in arriving with the BOBJ acquisition (see the dashboard conference sessions for more details).
  • Time box your KPI project – don’t get trapped in analysis paralysis
  • Involve outside experts from industry to move forward fast.
resources
Resources

Dr. Bjarne Berg's web page -- 85+ presentations, tutorials & articles

http://csc-studentweb.lrc.edu/swp/Berg/BB_index_main.htm

The Performance Mgmt. association- PMA Forum http://www.som.cranfield.ac.uk/som/research/centres/cbp/index.asp

Key Performance Indicators: Developing, Implementing, & Using winning KPIs - David Parmenter

http://www.amazon.com/Key-Performance-Indicators-Developing-Implementing/dp/0470095881

SAP Accelerator worksheet for KPIs @ SAP Help

help.sap.com/bp_smv2007/SSM_US/Documentation/KPI_Accelerator.xls

your turn
Your Turn!

How to contact me:

Dr. Bjarne Berg

bberg@myitgroup.com