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  1. Addiction “Please sir, may I have some more”

  2. What is Addiction? • Addiction is the continued use of a mood altering substance or behavior despite adverse consequences, or a neurological impairment leading to such behaviors.

  3. Types of Addiction • Most commonly accepted addictions are alcohol and drugs • Some psychologists however recognize various behaviors as addictions though which ones are REAL addictions is a matter of debate • Behavioral addictions are patterns of behavior, which follow a cycle similar to that of substance dependence.

  4. Behavioral Addictions

  5. Problem Gambling • Pathological gambling is currently the only behavioral addiction included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), and is classified as an "Impulse Control Disorder," where the “essential feature is the failure to resist an impulse, drive or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the person or to others”

  6. Food Addiction • Firstly, food addiction is maladaptive, so although people overeat to feel better, it often ends up making them feel worse, and gives them more to feel back about. • Secondly, the overeating that food addicts do is persistent, so a food addict eats too much food -- often the wrong kinds of food -- too much of the time.

  7. Exercise • Several characteristics distinguish healthy regular exercise from exercise addiction. • Firstly, exercise addiction is maladaptive, so instead of improving the person’s life, it is causes more problems. • Secondly, it is persistent, so an exercise addict exercises too much and for too long without giving the body a chance to recover. Exercise addicts exercise for hours every day, regardless of fatigue or illness.

  8. Shopping • As with all addictions, shopping becomes the person’s main way of coping with stress, to the point where they continue to shop excessively even when it is clearly having a negative impact on other areas of their life. • As with other addictions, finances and relationships are damaged, yet the shopping addict feels unable to stop or even control their spending.

  9. Video Games • Video game addictions are similar to other addictions in terms of the amount of time spent playing, the strong emotional attachment to the activity, and the patterns of social difficulties experienced by gaming addicts. • As with other addictions, gaming addicts become preoccupied with game-playing, and it disrupts family and other areas of life, such as school. The younger that children begin playing video games, the more likely they are to develop dependence-like behaviors.

  10. Theories of addictions

  11. Medical Model • Addiction as a “brain disease” • Neurotransmitter imbalance • Disease Model: • Agent: drug • Vector: dealers • Host: addict • Need to “stamp out” the disease by eliminating drugs

  12. Psychodynamic Model • Drug abusers are “self-medicating” • Drug abuse is a symptom of underlying psychological problems • Drug use is a maladaptive psychological coping strategy • Drug abusers need to resolve internal conflict, and when they do, drug abuse will be unnecessary

  13. Social Model • Drug use is a learned behavior • People use drugs because drug use is molded by others • Peer pressure • Environmental effects lead to drug use (advertising, etc.) • Drug use is a maladaptive relationship negotiation strategy

  14. Moral Model • Also the criminal justice model • Addicts are “weak” and can overcome a compulsion to use with willpower • Drug abusers choose to use drugs • Drug abusers are anti-social and should be punished • Drugs are evil

  15. Bio-psycho-social Model • All of the previous theories are true, to greater or lesser degrees • Each person’s drug use is a result of some aspects of some or all the other models • Treatment and recovery require addressing the body, mind, social environment, and spiritual needs of the individual (including nutrition, employment, family issues, psychological issues, etc.) • Developmental approach to recovery • Based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs