Addiction Substance Abuse Grade 10 PHE Is addiction a moral defect, a mental illness or a party gone wrong?
WHAT DO YOU WANT TO SEE? I am at a meeting tomorrow for safe schools and I would like input from you about what you would like to have or see at the school!
It is a complex brain disease characterized by compulsive, at times uncontrollable drug craving, seeking, and use despite devastating consequences–behaviours that stem from drug-induced changes in brain structure and function.
Society and Neglect • 1 in 4 Canadians will experience addiction or mental illness during their lifetime (1/10 in a year). • 2/3 who need care receive none • This affects more people than heart disease – more than cancer, arthritis & diabetes combined. • Costs Canada $32-billion a year, • 20% of Ontario children require help (only 4% currently receive help).
Why do some people use drugs? • Brainstorm a list of reasons people give for using drugs. • What are some of the positive, • beneficial or desirable • effects that people might • experience when using drugs
What is addiction? • What is first word that comes to mind if you are asked that question?
2 types of addiction • Addictions do not only include physical things we consume, such as drugs or alcohol, but may include virtually anything, such abstract things like gambling and then seemingly harmless products, such as chocolate. • In other words, addiction may refer to a substance dependence(e.g. drug addiction) or behavioural addiction(e.g. gambling addiction).
PHYSICAL SUBSTANCES • Addictionused to only refer to psychoactive substances that cross the blood-brain barrier, temporarily altering the chemical balance of the brain; this would include alcohol, tobacco and some drugs. • This is not 100% true anymore. • Nonetheless, this UNIT focuses mainly on addiction to physical substances.
Do you agree? • People with an addiction do not have control over what they are doing, taking or using. • When a person is addicted to something they cannot control how they use it, and become dependent on it to cope with daily life.
A habit may eventually develop into an addiction • Many of us can use substances or become engaged in activities without any significant problems. • Some people, however, may experience damaging psychological and/or physical effects when their habit becomes an addiction.
What is the difference between a habit and an addiction? • What do you think?
Addiction- there is a psychological/physical component; the person is unable to control the aspects of the addiction without help because of the mental or physical conditions involved. • Habit- it is done by choice. The person with the habit can choose to stop, and will subsequently stop successfully if they want to. The psychological/physical component is not an issue as it is with an addiction.
Substance dependence • Is when an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance dependence may be diagnosed. • Compulsive and repetitive use may result in tolerance to the effect of the drug and withdrawal symptoms when use is reduced or stopped. • This, along with Substance Abuse are considered Substance Use Disorders
Signs and Symptoms of Addiction • A symptom is something the patient senses and describes, while a sign is something other people notice. • For example; • sleepiness may be a symptom • dilated pupils may be a sign.
Substance dependence • Is when a person is addicted to a substance, such as a drug, alcohol or nicotine, they are not able to control the use of that substance. • They continue taking it, even though it may cause harm (the individual may or may not be aware of the potential harm).
Hard to Quit • Substance dependence can cause powerful cravings. • The addict may want to give up (quit), but finds it extremely difficult to do so without help. • The signs and symptoms of substance dependence vary according to the individual, the substance they are addicted to, their family history (genetics), and personal circumstances.
Signs & symptoms of addiction • The following two slides include some signs and symptoms of addiction. • However, some substance/alcohol abusers who are not technically addicted may also suffer from or cause some of the descriptions mentioned, but they do not usually have the withdrawal symptoms of an addict or the same compulsion to consume the substance.
HOW MIGHT YOU KNOW? • Dealing with problems - an addicted person commonly feels they need their drug to deal with their problems. • Obsession - an addicted person may spend more and more time and energy focusing on ways of getting hold of their substance, and in some cases how to use it. • Secrecy and solitude • Denial • Excess consumption - in some addictions, such as alcohol, some drugs and even nicotine, the individual consumes it to excess. • Dropping hobbies and activities • Having stashes • Taking an initial large dose - this is common with alcoholism. The individual may gulp drinks down in order to get drunk and then feel good. • Having problems with the law • Financial difficulties • Relationship problems
The person takes the substance • and cannot stop • Withdrawal symptoms • Addiction continues despite health problem awareness • Social and/or recreational sacrifices • Maintaining a good supply • Taking risks (1) - in some cases the addicted individual make take risks to make sure he/she can obtain his/her substance, such as stealing or trading sex for money/drugs. • Taking risks (2) - while under the influence of some substances the addict may engage in risky activities, such as driving fast.
Risk Factors • A risk factor is something which increases the likelihood of developing a condition or disease. • For example, obesity significantly raises the risk of developing diabetes type 2. Therefore, obesity is a risk factor for diabetes type 2.
Risk factors • Peer pressure • Family behaviouryoung people who do not have a strong attachment to their parents and siblings have a higher risk of becoming addicted to something • Loneliness • The nature of the substance- some substances, such as crack, heroin or cocaine can bring about addiction more rapidly than others. • Age when substance was first consumed- studies of alcoholism have shown that people who start consuming a drug earlier in life have a higher risk of eventually becoming addicted, than those who started later. Many experts say this also applies to nicotine and drugs. • How the body metabolizes (processes) the substance- in cases of alcohol, for example, individuals who need a higher dose to achieve an effect have a higher risk of eventually becoming addicted. • Genetics (family history) - Alcoholics are six times more likely than non-alcoholics to have blood relatives who are alcohol dependent. • Gendera significantly higher percentage of people addicted to a substance are male. Males are twice as likely as females to have problems with drugs. • Having a mental illness/conditionpeople with depression, ADHD and several other mental conditions/illnesses have a higher risk of eventually becoming addicted to drugs, alcohol or nicotine. • Stress
What causes addiction? • The addictive substance, be it nicotine, alcohol or some drug actually causes physical changes in some nerve cells in the brain. • Another name for a nerve cell is a neuron. • Neurons release neurotransmitters into the synapses (empty spaces) between nerve cells, which are received by receptors in other neurons. • What is a neurotransmitter. Simply put , it is a messenger of brain data from one cell to another cell.
Tolerance increases • After a while, the user of the potentially addictive substance does not get the same pleasure and has to increase the dose - his/her body’s tolerance to it increases. • Eventually, the user no longer experiences pleasure from the substance and takes it simply to prevent withdrawal symptoms - taking the substance just makes them feel normal. • Experts say that when tolerance increases, the risk of addiction is much greater.