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slide1

Module 1: Introduction to Animal Emergency Management forVeterinary ProfessionalsModule 2: Bio-Defense and Zoonoses

module 1 introduction to animal emergency management for veterinary professionals
Module 1: Introduction to Animal Emergency Management for Veterinary Professionals

To provide an overview of the knowledge, skills and abilities that enable veterinary professionals to effectively participate in the Colorado Veterinary Medical Reserve Corps and local animal emergency response programs.

Objective:

target audience
Target Audience
  • Veterinarians
  • Certified Veterinary Technicians
  • Students
    • Veterinary medical
    • Veterinary technology
  • Support staff
    • Veterinary assistants
    • Hospital administrators/managers
    • Animal professionals
covmrc training program
COVMRC Training Program
  • FEMA IS 100 and IS 700
  • Unit 1: Overview of animal emergency management for veterinary professionals
  • Unit 2: Bio-defense and biological risk management
  • Unit 3: Overview of CBRNE hazards for veterinary professionals
  • Unit 4: Personal preparedness and business contingency planning
under what authority does co vmrc operate
Under What Authority Does CO VMRC Operate?
  • Homeland Security Presidential Directive 9
    • Designates agriculture and food systems as critical infrastructures
    • Directs federal agencies to take specific steps to protect food and agricultural systems
slide6
Pet Evacuation and Transportation Act of 2006-signed into law October 2006 (PETS Act)

Stafford Act amendment

Requires state and local plans for household pets and service animals

Allows FEMA cost-sharing for services in support of people with household pets and service animals

Allows FEMA director to make contributions for preparedness

animal populations mission areas
Animal Populations (Mission Areas)
  • Companion animals
  • Production livestock and poultry
  • Backyard livestock and poultry
  • Service/assistance animals
  • Law enforcement/search and rescue animals
  • Laboratory animals
  • Captive wildlife
  • Native wildlife
what are the animal and agricultural concerns in disasters
What are the animal and agricultural concerns in disasters?
  • Public safety
  • Public and animal health
  • Agro-security
  • Animal welfare
  • Service/police animals
  • Wildlife/environment
public safety impacts
Public Safety Impacts

People will risk their lives to protect animals

Can put themselves and responders at risk

Redeployment of law enforcement resources

This is not just a companion animal issue

Operation Pet Rescue: 1996 Weyauwega, Wisconsin

public health and zoonosis
Public Health and Zoonosis

Public health and animal health issues intersect broadly

Veterinary professionals are essential in addressing zoonotic disease issues during disasters

A zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from non-human animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to non-human animals.

examples of zoonotic diseases
Examples of Zoonotic Diseases

Rabies

West Nile Virus

H1N1

Anthrax

Brucellosis

Tuberculosis

Rabies

Giardia

Salmonella

Influenza

Plague

Q Fever

Gram positive bipolar-staining organisms of Yersinia pestis

priority biological agents category a diseases
Priority Biological Agents Category A Diseases

Easily transmitted to people, with high morbidity and mortality rates.

  • Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
  • Botulism (Clostridium botulinum)*
  • Plague (Yersinia pestis)
  • Smallpox (Variola major)*
  • Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
  • Viral hemorrhagic fevers ( Lassa fever, Hantavirus, Rift Valley fever, Dengue,Ebola, Marburg viruses)
category b diseases
Category B Diseases

Transmitted to people with moderate morbidity and low mortality rates.

  • Melioidosis (Burkholderia pseudomallei)
  • Brucellosis (Brucella species)
  • Q Fever (Coxiella burnetii)
  • Glanders (Burkholderia mallei)
  • Typhus fever (Rickettsia prowazekii)
  • Toxins Staphylococcal, Clostridial, Ricin
  • Food and water-borne pathogens
category c diseases
Category C Diseases

Emerging and exotic infectious disease threats

  • Nipah virus
  • Hanta Virus
  • Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever virus
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus
  • Yellow fever
  • Influenza virus (H5N1, H1N1)
  • Rabies virus
  • Tuberculosis (multi drug resistant strains)
animal agriculture as a critical infrastructure
Animal Agriculture as a Critical Infrastructure
  • Basic necessities:
    • Food/water
    • Shelter
    • Warmth
  • Food supply systems
    • Vulnerable at multiple points
    • Critical “farm to fork” food pipeline
  • Economic impacts
  • Non-economic impacts
united states agricultural economy
United States Agricultural Economy
  • US tops world in food production
  • World’s largest exporter of agricultural products
  • Animal agriculture >$100 billion
  • Crop agriculture >$100 billion
  • 17% of jobs connected to food/agriculture
  • 13% of gross domestic product
  • <<10% of income goes to buy food
service animals
Service Animals

Seeing-eye dogs

Hearing assistance

Hospital visits

Mobility assistance

Medical warning

Seizures

Medical detection

Mental health therapy

law enforcement and emergency response animals
Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Animals

Canine

Enforcement/patrol

Drug and explosive detection

Search and rescue

Equine

Patrol/search

Crowd control

captive concentrated animal populations
Captive/Concentrated Animal Populations

laboratory animals

zoos, sanctuaries, wildlife parks

commercial breeding/pet retail

kennels/veterinary hospitals

native wildlife
Native Wildlife

Impacts on critical environments or endangered species

Impacts of animal diseases

  • Brucellosis (Yellowstone)
  • Foot and Mouth Disease
  • West Nile Virus
  • H1N1 (Swine Flu)
animals in the state of colorado
Animals in the State of Colorado

Colorado (2002 estimate) 4.5+ million people

1.82 million households

Up to 60% of households with pets

2.5 animals per household

2.7+ million dogs, cats, and birds

Add rabbits, rodents, ferrets, reptiles, etc.

colorado horses and other livestock species
Colorado Horses and Other Livestock Species

Horses: 145,000-225,000+

All Cattle: 2,400,000

Mature dairy cows: 98,000

Mature beef cows: 710,000

Sheep & goats: 420,000+

Poultry: <20,000,000 (variable)

Swine: 770,000

Captive deer, elk, bison

Llamas, alpacas

Emu, ostrich

definitions
Definitions

Hazards

Threats of all types

Vulnerability

People, property of systems that are subject to hazards

Consequence

Degree of potential impact

Risk

Overall sum of hazard, vulnerability, and consequence

slide25
Colorado Weather Hazards
  • Tornado
  • Blizzard
  • Ice storms
  • Hail
  • Wind
  • Lightning
  • Mudslide
  • Avalanche
  • Floods
  • Drought (wildfire)
geological hazards
Geological Hazards

Earthquake

Trinidad area 2001, series with largest at 4.6

Rocky Mountain National Park

November 7, 1882

Estimated near 6.2 Richter

Latest estimates max impact=

$24 billion damages, 800 fatalities

Volcanic eruption

Mount Saint Helens

Tsunami (Pacific coastal)

wildfire
Wildfire

Natural, Accidental, Intentional

Low to high impact

Usually April-October

Risk magnified by large wilderness-urban interface areas

2002 Colorado wildfire season

Wildfires are a threat every year

animal welfare emergencies
Animal Welfare Emergencies

Animal “hoarders” and large-scale cruelty

Dozens or even hundreds of animals kept under terrible conditions

May exceed local capacity to provide care

other hazards
Other Hazards

Accidental

Hazardous Chemical spills/releases

Nuclear/radiological hazards

Infrastructure failure

Power blackouts, dams, bridges, buildings

Accidental explosions

Transportation accidents

Major urban fires

intentional threats
Intentional Threats

CBRNE:

Chemical

Biological

People, animals, crops

Radiological

Nuclear

Explosive

Extortion, hoaxes and fraud

Market manipulation

emergency management priorities
Emergency Management Priorities

Protection of human life/health

Protection of property

Protection of the environment

For many people, animals are the top property priority

Providing animal emergency management services allows all of these priorities to be achieved

all hazards emergency management
All-Hazards Emergency Management

Flexible to adapt to all emergency situations

Standardized to improve overall response and interoperability.

Comprehensive

Emergency

Management

homeland security presidential directive 5
Homeland Security Presidential Directive – 5

Directed the development of a National Incident Management System and a new National Response Framework

national incident management system
National Incident Management System

“…a consistent nationwide approach for federal, state, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.”

national response framework
National Response Framework

The National Response Framework is built on the template of the National Incident Management System. It provides the structure and mechanisms for coordinating federal support to state, local and tribal incident managers … and for exercising direct federal authorities and responsibilities.

slide39

NIMS

  • Aligns command, control, organization structure, terminology, communication protocols and resources/resource-typing
  • Used for all events

Resources

Knowledge

  • NRF
  • Integrates and applies federal resources, knowledge, and abilities before, during and after incidents
  • Activated for Incidents of National Significance

Abilities

components of nims
Command and Management

Preparedness

Resource Management

Communications and Information Management

Supporting Technologies

Ongoing Management and Maintenance

Components of NIMS
slide41

Incident Commander

Safety Officer

Liaison Officer

Information Officer

Operations

Section

Planning

Section

Logistics

Section

Finance

Section

Basic ICS Command Structure

IS-100 Incident Command Systems

http://training.fema.gov/IS/crslist.asp

statutory authority
Statutory Authority

Legal Authority is basis for incident command

Local animal authorities

Law enforcement

Animal control

Public health

Emergency management

State animal authorities

State veterinarian

Public health

Emergency management

Wildlife agencies

Public safety

Federal animal authorities

USDA: livestock diseases

HHS: public health impacts

DHS: emergency management

DOJ: Terrorism

Colorado’s 9 Homeland

Security Regions

multi agency coordination national response plan emergency support functions esf
Multi-Agency Coordination: National Response Plan Emergency Support Functions (ESF)

ESF1: Transportation

ESF2: Communications

ESF3: Public works and engineering

ESF4: Firefighting

ESF5: Emergency management

ESF6: Mass care, housing, and human services

ESF7: Resource support

ESF8: Public health and medical services

ESF9: Urban search and rescue

ESF10: Oil and hazardous materials response

ESF11: Agriculture and natural resources

ESF12: Energy

ESF13: Public safety and security

ESF14: Long term community recovery and mitigation

ESF15: External affairs

state multi agency coordination
State Multi-Agency Coordination

Commercial

Agricultural

Production

Emergency

Management

Agencies

Veterinary

Medicine

Food

Processing

& Distribution

Research

Education

Laboratory

Animal/Agricultural Emergency Issues

Regulatory

Agencies

General

Public

Foundations

Animal

Welfare

Entities

Law

Enforcement &

Counterterrorism

Wildlife

Agencies

Public

Health

Voluntary

Organizations

Support

Industries

Media

Transportation

Public Works

Elected

Officials

response originates on the local level
Response Originates on the Local Level

Multi-agency coordination

Plan development

Interoperable communications

Resource development

Equipment & supplies

Training

Professionals

Volunteers

Credentialing

Citizen preparedness

local multi agency coordination
Local Multi-Agency Coordination
  • Local Emergency Managers
  • Animal care and Control agencies
  • Law Enforcement
  • Brand Inspectors
  • Veterinary Community
  • CSU Extension
  • Animal Related industry
  • Fairgrounds
  • Livestock Associations
  • Kennels and pet Service Providers
  • Livestock Producers
  • Pet Breed Rescue and Associations
  • Community Public Health
  • Fire and EMS
  • County Mapping
  • Wildlife Agencies and Zoos
  • Concerned Individuals
local planning matrix f or animal issues
Local Planning Matrix for Animal Issues

Table of functions vs. community resources

Combine with risk assessment

Basis for building a written response plan

Veterinary Care

Evacuation

Sheltering

Rescue

Disposal

Animal control

Animal shelter

Veterinary Prof.

  • lead (L)
  • unified lead (U)
  • support (S)

CSUExtension

Livestock Assn.

veterinary specific roles
Veterinary Specific Roles
  • Triage
  • Veterinary clinical care
    • Field care
    • Hospital care
    • Mass casualty care
    • Euthanasia
  • Biological risk management
  • Public health/medical support
  • Foreign animal disease support
animal disease mission tasks
Animal Disease Mission Tasks
  • Diagnosis
  • Quarantine
  • Surveillance
  • Epidemiology
  • Mortality management
  • Decontamination
  • Permits
  • Bio-security/compliance
  • Outreach/education
  • Mental health issues
  • Repopulation/recovery

Goal is agricultural system continuity

sheltering
Sheltering
  • Animal safety, security and bio-security
  • Identification and recordkeeping
    • Proof of ownership
  • Shelter situations
    • Permanent +/- expansion
    • Temporary
    • Temporary co-located
  • Co-shelter with people shelters is preferred
animal search and rescue asar
Animal Search and Rescue (ASAR)
  • NRF will provide:
    • ESF#9 (USAR) lead for rescuing people with animals
    • ESF#11 (ASAR) lead for rescue of animals
  • Need standardized training, typing, credentialing
mental health animal issues for victims
Mental Health: Animal Issues for Victims

General emotional trauma

Helplessness

Emotional attachment to animals

Displacement

Housing and care concerns

Loss

Animals may be missing or status unknown

Death

Human and animal

Livestock depopulation impacts

break
BREAK
  • We will take a 10 minute break….
module 2 bio defense and zoonoses
Module 2: Bio-Defense and Zoonoses

Objectives:

  • Define terms related to bio-defense
  • List basic disease transmission routes
  • Give examples of Zoonotic agents
  • List examples of high consequence/emerging diseases
  • Describe hand hygiene/barrier protection
  • Identify basics of cleaning and disinfection
  • Identify the components of a biological risk management plan
  • Give examples of agricultural bio-security
  • List veterinary emergency biologic risk management/infection control roles
  • Discuss current H1N1 situation
definitions1
Definitions
  • Bio-defense
  • Bio-security
  • Biological risk management
  • Infection Control
  • Zoonoses
  • Reportable disease
  • Foreign animal disease
  • Animal health emergency
  • Agro-terrorism
  • Agro-security
bio defense bio security biological risk management
Bio-Defense, Bio-Security, Biological Risk Management
  • Bio-Defense
    • Protecting a nation, industry, or facility from high-impact biological threats
  • Bio-Security
    • Steps taken at a facility or agency to prevent the introduction, export, or internal spread of disease agents
  • Biological Risk Management (BRM)
    • Comprehensive evaluation of risks and mitigation actions to minimize biological risks to an acceptable level
  • Infection Control (IC)
    • Procedures to limit spread of infectious agents
    • Term commonly used in human health care
bio security

Bio-

Containment

Bio-Security:

Bio-Exclusion

  • Bio-exclusion:
    • Keeping infectious organisms from entering a facility or population
  • Bio-containment
    • Keeping infectious organisms from leaving a facility or population
zoonotic and reportable diseases
Zoonotic and Reportable Diseases
  • Reportable Diseases
    • Foreign animal disease or endemic (native) diseases that must be reported to state or federal authorities.
  • Zoonotic Diseases
    • Diseases that infect both animals and people
      • Spread between people and animals
      • Infected by the same vector

A vector is an insect or any living carrier that transmits an infectious agent. Vectors are vehicles by which infections are transmitted from one host to another.

foreign animal diseases fad
Foreign Animal Diseases (FAD)

Specific animal or Zoonotic diseases that:

  • Are not normally present in the United States
  • Must be reported to state and/or federal authorities
  • Are reportable to the World Health Organization
  • Will impact livestock industries
  • Will impact international trade
foreign animal diseases of highest importance to the u s
Foreign Animal Diseases of Highest Importance to the U.S.

Avian Influenza*Exotic Newcastle Disease*

BSE (Mad Cow) Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

Foot and Mouth Disease* Heartwater

Lumpy Skin Disease Malignant Catarrhal Fever

Rift Valley Fever Rinderpest*

Goat and Sheep Pox Peste de pestis ruminants

African Horse Sickness* Contagious Equine Metritis

Dourine Glanders

African Swine Fever*Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera)*

Swine Vesicular Disease Vesicular Exanthema of Swine

Screwworm*

Equine Encephalomyelitis = West Nile Fever, Eastern, Western, & Venezuelan*

* Pose the greatest threat to the U.S.

animal health emergency
Animal Health Emergency
  • The state veterinarian activates the state emergency operations plan concerning animal diseases
  • Foreign animal disease or a high-impact endemic disease
  • May be accidental, natural, or intentional
agro terrorism and agro security
Agro-Terrorism and Agro-Security
  • Agro-Terrorism
    • A criminal act involving intentional harm to agriculture through a biological, explosive, chemical, radiological, incendiary, or explosive attack.
  • Agro-Security
    • Comprehensive actions to protect agricultural from both intentional CBRNE threats as well as natural or accidental events, including diseases.
society has changed
Society has changed
  • More people have contact with animals today than they did a century ago
  • Early 19th century 40% of the population were involved with agriculture
  • Today less than 2% are involved with agriculture
  • 60% households have at least one kind of pet
what is a zoonotic disease
What is a Zoonotic disease?

The simplest definition of a zoonosis is a diseasethat can be transmitted from one vertebrate animal to another.

Another definition is a disease that normally infects animals, but can also be transmitted to humans.

case example monkey pox virus
Case Example: Monkey Pox Virus

Reportable foreign animal disease

Spread animal-to-human via blood or bite

Human-to-human spread possible

Similar in appearance to smallpox but milder

Also affects other species such as rodents

Wisconsin 2003, 7 confirmed, 34 suspect human cases

slide70

Case Example 2: Q Fever

  • Rickettsia - Coxiella burnettii
  • Cattle, sheep, goats reservoirs
  • Asymptomatic in animalsAbortion in sheep, goats
  • One organism may cause infection
  • Inhalation most common
  • Unpasteurized milk, soft cheeses
  • Flu-like symptoms in people
case example h1n1
Case Example: H1N1
  • Orthomyxo virus - influenza A virus
  • Reassortment of avian, pig and human genotypes in H1N1
  • Zoonotic disease – mostly human to animals
slide72

H1N1 Influenza A

Poultry

Pigs

Ferrets

Cats

Cheetah

Dogs

common zoonotic disease risks in small animal facilities
Common Zoonotic Disease Risks in Small Animal Facilities
  • Rabies
  • Fungal diseases
  • Cat scratch fever
  • Larval migrans
  • Salmonellosis
  • Plague
  • Tularemia
  • Influenza ?
  • Psittacosis
  • Toxoplasmosis
biological risk management brm infection control
Biological Risk Management (BRM)Infection Control

Identification and handling of animals, animal waste, and diagnostic specimens to minimize risk of transmission of disease to people and/or other animals

disaster bio safety procedures
Disaster Bio-Safety Procedures

An extension of facility procedures

Veterinary hospitals

Animal shelters

Kennels

Fairgrounds

Salebarns

Veterinary planning

and implementation

role

infection control plans
Infection Control Plans

A written set of policies and procedures that communicate to the CO VMRC how the unit will manage infectious disease risks to people and animals.

  • Scope
  • Planning assumptions
  • Bio-safety practices
  • Unit training
  • Community/client outreach
  • Plan maintenance
  • Appendices/references
planning assumptions
Planning Assumptions

It is necessary for the CO VMRC to have a BRM/IC plan.

  • Protection of all unit members, clients, animals and facilities - Right to Know
  • Reportable diseases
  • Standard of care and liability issues
  • New or emerging diseases may be recognized first in animals (e.g. West Nile Virus)
  • Bioterrorism may impact both people and animals
reportable diseases in colorado
REPORTABLE DISEASES IN COLORADO
  • Anaplasmosis (Clinical Disease Only)
  • Anthrax
  • Avian Influenza (Both high or low pathogenic)
  • Brucellosis (Bovine, Porcine, Ovine, or *Canine)
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)
  • Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)
  • Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM)
  • Equine Encephalomyelitis (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)
  • Equine Infectious Anemia (Positive Coggins/ELISA)
  • Equine Viral Arteritis
  • Equine Herpes Virus type 1 (Neurological form of Equine Rhinopneumonitis)
  • Malignant Catarrhal Fever
  • Mycoplasmagallisepticum or synoviae
  • Paratuberculosis (Johne’s Disease)
  • * Plague (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)
  • * Psittacosis (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)
  • Pseudorabies
  • * Rabies (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)
  • Salmonella (pullorum or enteritidis)
  • Scabies (Cattle or Sheep)
  • Scrapie
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Tuberculosis
  • * Tularemia (reportable to CO Dept. Public Health)
  • Vesicular Stomatitis, All Species
  • Vesicular Diseases of all species
  • West Nile Virus
  • *- diseases of interest to small animal practitioners
  • Date Last Reviewed: July 23, 2008

ANY DISEASE LISTED ABOVE OR FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASE OR ANY INFECTIOUS DISEASEOR PARASITE OF LIVESTOCK WHICH WAS NOT PEVIOUSLY KNOWN TO EXIST IN COLORADO SHALL BE REPORTED, ie: ANY DISEASE OF UNUSUAL MORBIDITY OR MORTALITY THAT DOES NOT FIT A NORMALLY EXPECTED CLINICAL PICTURE.

If an animal dies acutely and was exhibiting clinical signs of a reportable disease this incident shall be reported even though no diagnostic

testing was accomplished prior to death.

right to know laws
Right to Know Laws
  • Applies to hazards potentially encountered by the unit and the general public
  • Allows optimal health care of patients (healthy and diseased)
  • Optimal protection of people
risk assessment
Risk Assessment
  • What are the key biological threats that the CO VMRC might face?
    • Animal diseases
    • Zoonotic diseases
    • Human diseases (members and clients)
  • What are the vulnerabilities?
    • Cages, kennels
    • Common areas
    • Treatment outside of a facility
    • Eating areas for staff
    • Visitors entering restricted areas
bio safety practices
Bio-Safety Practices
  • Risk recognition
  • Traffic flow
  • Isolation procedures
  • Hand hygiene policies
  • Barrier protection
  • Sanitation procedures
  • Bite procedures
  • Rabies prophylaxis
  • Other
biologic risk recognition
Biologic Risk Recognition

Which diseases do we worry about recognizing early?

Zoonoses

Highly contagious

Highly persistent

Significant clinical consequences

Regulatory concern

Management:

Keep high risk animals isolated

Traffic flow and isolation

biological threats
Biological Threats

Viruses (Rift valley fever)

Bacteria (strep, salmonella)

Fungi (yeast, mold)

Prions (mad cow disease)

Bio-toxins (red tide, Ricin)

disease transmission routes
Disease Transmission Routes

Droplet contact - coughing or sneezing on another person

Direct physical contact - touching an infected person, including sexual contact

Indirect contact - usually by touching soil contamination or a contaminated surface

Airborne transmission - if the microorganism can remain in the air for long periods

Fecal-oral transmission - usually from contaminated food or water sources

Vector borne transmission - carried by insects or other animals

Some diseases may use multiple routes of transmission

risk recognition tools
Risk Recognition Tools
  • Entry recognition
    • Screening when animal arrives at site
  • Routing infectious cases away from well animals
  • Isolation
  • Keeping visitors out of restricted areas
slide88

Risk recognition starts as soon as the animal is brought to the CO VMRC…

For example- if the animal has a history or obvious signs of GI or respiratory disease, move the animal into an isolation area ASAP

example plague risk recognition
Example: Plague Risk Recognition
  • Sick outdoor/hunter cat = plague on the radar
  • Recognition
    • High fever, depression
    • Lymph node enlargement or abscess
    • +/-respiratory signs
    • Inflammatory leukogram
    • Cytology
additional plague precautions
Additional plague precautions:
  • Protective measures
    • Gloves, mask*, barrier gowns worn immediately (inhalant and contact danger)
    • Individuals with specified risks (pregnancy, immune compromise) relieved of case management
    • Contact limited to attending clinician and one other staff
    • Medical waste handled as hazardous

* Respiratory protection must meet OSHA/CDC guidelines with a minimum of N-95

hand hygiene
Hand Hygiene

May be the single most important bio-safety practice!

Major challenge is compliance

Reasons for noncompliance include

Lack of time to do the “right thing”

Impact of hand hygiene practices on skin condition

Improve compliance by adding hand sanitizing gels to program

methods of hand hygiene
Methods of Hand Hygiene
  • Broad categories
    • Surgical scrub=gold standard
    • Hand washing
      • Regular soap
      • Antibacterial soap
    • Alcohol gels
    • Alcohol liquid
    • Chlorhexidine-alcohol hand sanitizer
    • Combination
      • Example hand washing and a gel or lotion
veterinary medical perspective
Veterinary Medical Perspective
  • Very limited information on optimal hand hygiene methods for animal care personnel
    • Most of the recommendations have been adapted from human health care
  • Veterinary medicine
    • Most veterinary patients are very hairy
    • Most veterinary patients are not bathed daily
    • Use of gloves for all patient contact is not routine
essentials for hand hygiene
Essentials for Hand Hygiene
  • Keep finger nails short and clean under finger nails as needed
  • Hand hygiene:
    • Should be performed between animal contacts
    • Wash station or sanitizers must be readily available and not compromise animal care
    • Should minimize negative impact on skin of animal care providers
    • Can include alcohol based hand sanitizer if hands are not grossly soiled
hand hygiene summary
Hand Hygiene Summary
  • Those involved in care of animals for the CO VRMC should:
    • Develop a minimum level of hand hygiene
    • Based procedures on the risk
    • Use hand hygiene as a routine or habit
  • If risk of contagious disease is high:
    • Use examination gloves along with other needed barrier precautions
    • Perform hand hygiene after removal of examination gloves
barrier protections
Barrier Protections
  • Gloves
  • Masks
    • N-95 or better
  • Gowns/coveralls
  • Caps/hair protection
  • HAZMAT protection
    • Levels A, B, C are seldom used in clinical animal care
cleaning and disinfection
Cleaning and Disinfection

Cleaning:

Removal of visible contaminants

Must precede disinfection

Disinfection:

Application of a suitable chemical agent for an appropriate amount of time to destroy specific infectious agents

10 essential steps in cleaning and disinfection
10 Essential Steps in Cleaning and Disinfection

Assess the areas to be cleaned

Remove all visible debris

Clean with water and detergent or soap

Thoroughly rinse the cleaned area

Allow the area to dry completely

cleaning and disinfection continued
Cleaning and Disinfection (continued)

Select and apply disinfectant

Allow the proper contact time

Rinse

Leave the area free of animals for a sufficient amount of time

Evaluate/monitor the effectiveness of the disinfection plan

cleaning and disinfection assessment
Cleaning and Disinfection Assessment

Microorganism considerations

Disinfectant considerations

Environmental considerations

Health and safety of people and animals

disinfectant considerations
Disinfectant Considerations
  • Label information
    • Statements of efficacy
      • Medical environment claims
      • Broad spectrum/general purpose
    • Dilution and use instructions
    • Storage and stability
    • Safety information
    • Environmental considerations
bites and scratches
Bites and Scratches

Rabies and bite policies needed

Prevention/safety

Post-bite protocols

10 day quarantine

Risk recognition in companion animals, livestock and wildlife

Cat scratches

Cat-scratch fever

rabies prophylaxis
Rabies Prophylaxis

Vaccination

Given prior to exposure

Periodic antibody titer monitoring

Post-exposure prophylaxis

Coordination with public health

Needed in:

Known positive cases

Exposure by animals unavailable for testing (such as wildlife)

Prophylaxis ( Greek "προφυλάσσω" to guard or prevent beforehand ) is any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure a disease.

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Designate food storage, preparation, and eating areas Designate specimen storage and and handling areas

Even in the field, the CO VMRC must..

implementing brm ic
Implementing BRM/IC
  • Not an easy task; almost every step will inconvenience someone
    • Particularly during a disaster
  • Tendency for complacency, convenience to overcome policies, unless we commit to:
    • Education
    • Enforcement
    • Evaluation
    • Continue improvement into the future.
agricultural bio defense
Agricultural Bio-defense

Defending against the potential volcanic impacts of foreign animal diseases

examples of significant fad agents
Examples of significant FAD agents:

African Swine Fever

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

Classical Swine Fever

Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia

Exotic Newcastle Disease

Foot and Mouth Disease

Highly-Pathogenic Avian Influenza

Lumpy Skin Disease

Rift Valley Fever

Rinderpest

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis

bio security measures for producers if fad response is at a production facility limit visitors
Bio-Security Measures for ProducersIf FAD response is at a production facility. Limit visitors.
  • Post visitor policies
  • No visitors from foreign countries for 7 days
  • Limited access for service providers
  • Clean/disinfect vehicles entering animal areas
  • Provide clean garments/boots for necessary visitors
security
Security
  • Fencing and locked gates where possible
  • Secure feed and chemicals
  • Report suspicious persons or events to local law enforcement or FBI
employees
Employees
  • Pre-screen employees when possible
  • Train employees on:
    • Biological risk management programs
    • Continuity of operations plan
  • Provide clean footwear, coveralls
  • Policy on off-hours contact with animals
  • Reporting of suspicious behavior/events
brm for field veterinary services
BRM for Field Veterinary Services
  • Monitor refrigerated medication temperatures
  • Bag and leave waste from each visit
  • Sites should have “clean” areas and “dirty” areas
brm in animal sheltering
BRM in Animal Sheltering
  • Risk factors
    • Stress
    • Varying levels of preventive care
      • Veterinary records not usually available
    • Congregation of many individual animals in close proximity
    • Pre-existing illness
    • Exposure to pathogens during disaster
    • Owner/history may be unavailable
biological risk management in community emergencies
Biological Risk Management in Community Emergencies
  • Environmental and infrastructure challenges
    • Utility failure
      • Sewage infrastructure
      • Water treatment
    • Flood waters
      • Micro-organism
      • Chemicals
      • Well contamination
    • Dead animals
brm in animal emergency plans
BRM in Animal Emergency Plans
  • Responsible for BRM components
    • State
      • State veterinarian
      • Universities
      • Public health
      • Veterinary associations
    • Local
      • Public health
      • Veterinary professionals
  • Written guidelines for animal response programs
    • Modify protocols to fit each emergency
brm tools in disaster
BRM Tools in Disaster
  • Obtain records when possible
    • Veterinary medical history
    • Copies of preventive care
  • Intake surveillance/triage
    • Especially for livestock
    • Veterinary screening exam for all animals
    • Isolation area for high-risk signs
  • Onsite preventive care where history is unknown
    • Immunization
    • Parasite control
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Ongoing surveillance
    • Screening examination 1-2 times daily
    • Thorough exam when indicated
    • Isolation for certain signs
    • Establish veterinary care protocols
  • Limit access to animal areas
  • Sanitation protocols
    • Written protocols
    • Onsite training: all workers/volunteers
    • OSHA “Right to know” considerations
      • MSDS availability
      • Training
      • PPE
  • Personal hygiene protocols
    • Hand washing
    • Eating/drinking
questions
Questions?

To take the required post-test:

  • Log in to your CO TRAIN account
  • Click on “my learning”
  • Click on name of course
  • It will ask you to either “withdraw” or “complete the course”. Click on “complete”
  • Click on “take assessment”
  • Complete the test and submit
  • If you passed the test, your certificate of completion will be added to your CO TRAIN account