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Module 1: Introduction to Animal Emergency Management for Veterinary Professionals Module 2: Bio-Defense and Zoonoses. Module 1: Introduction to Animal Emergency Management for Veterinary Professionals.
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To provide an overview of the knowledge, skills and abilities that enable veterinary professionals to effectively participate in the Colorado Veterinary Medical Reserve Corps and local animal emergency response programs.
Stafford Act amendment
Requires state and local plans for household pets and service animals
Allows FEMA cost-sharing for services in support of people with household pets and service animals
Allows FEMA director to make contributions for preparedness
People will risk their lives to protect animals
Can put themselves and responders at risk
Redeployment of law enforcement resources
This is not just a companion animal issue
Operation Pet Rescue: 1996 Weyauwega, Wisconsin
Public health and animal health issues intersect broadly
Veterinary professionals are essential in addressing zoonotic disease issues during disasters
A zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from non-human animals, both wild and domestic, to humans or from humans to non-human animals.
West Nile Virus
Gram positive bipolar-staining organisms of Yersinia pestis
Easily transmitted to people, with high morbidity and mortality rates.
Transmitted to people with moderate morbidity and low mortality rates.
Emerging and exotic infectious disease threats
Mental health therapy
Drug and explosive detection
Search and rescue
zoos, sanctuaries, wildlife parks
commercial breeding/pet retail
Impacts on critical environments or endangered species
Impacts of animal diseases
Colorado (2002 estimate) 4.5+ million people
1.82 million households
Up to 60% of households with pets
2.5 animals per household
2.7+ million dogs, cats, and birds
Add rabbits, rodents, ferrets, reptiles, etc.
All Cattle: 2,400,000
Mature dairy cows: 98,000
Mature beef cows: 710,000
Sheep & goats: 420,000+
Poultry: <20,000,000 (variable)
Captive deer, elk, bison
Threats of all types
People, property of systems that are subject to hazards
Degree of potential impact
Overall sum of hazard, vulnerability, and consequence
Trinidad area 2001, series with largest at 4.6
Rocky Mountain National Park
November 7, 1882
Estimated near 6.2 Richter
Latest estimates max impact=
$24 billion damages, 800 fatalities
Mount Saint Helens
Tsunami (Pacific coastal)
Natural, Accidental, Intentional
Low to high impact
Risk magnified by large wilderness-urban interface areas
2002 Colorado wildfire season
Wildfires are a threat every year
Animal “hoarders” and large-scale cruelty
Dozens or even hundreds of animals kept under terrible conditions
May exceed local capacity to provide care
Hazardous Chemical spills/releases
Power blackouts, dams, bridges, buildings
Major urban fires
People, animals, crops
Extortion, hoaxes and fraud
Protection of human life/health
Protection of property
Protection of the environment
For many people, animals are the top property priority
Providing animal emergency management services allows all of these priorities to be achieved
Flexible to adapt to all emergency situations
Standardized to improve overall response and interoperability.
Directed the development of a National Incident Management System and a new National Response Framework
“…a consistent nationwide approach for federal, state, tribal, and local governments to work effectively and efficiently together to prepare for, prevent, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity.”
The National Response Framework is built on the template of the National Incident Management System. It provides the structure and mechanisms for coordinating federal support to state, local and tribal incident managers … and for exercising direct federal authorities and responsibilities.
Basic ICS Command Structure
IS-100 Incident Command Systems
Legal Authority is basis for incident command
Local animal authorities
State animal authorities
Federal animal authorities
USDA: livestock diseases
HHS: public health impacts
DHS: emergency management
Colorado’s 9 Homeland
ESF3: Public works and engineering
ESF5: Emergency management
ESF6: Mass care, housing, and human services
ESF7: Resource support
ESF8: Public health and medical services
ESF9: Urban search and rescue
ESF10: Oil and hazardous materials response
ESF11: Agriculture and natural resources
ESF13: Public safety and security
ESF14: Long term community recovery and mitigation
ESF15: External affairs
Animal/Agricultural Emergency Issues
Equipment & supplies
Table of functions vs. community resources
Combine with risk assessment
Basis for building a written response plan
Goal is agricultural system continuity
General emotional trauma
Emotional attachment to animals
Housing and care concerns
Animals may be missing or status unknown
Human and animal
Livestock depopulation impacts
A vector is an insect or any living carrier that transmits an infectious agent. Vectors are vehicles by which infections are transmitted from one host to another.
Specific animal or Zoonotic diseases that:
Avian Influenza*Exotic Newcastle Disease*
BSE (Mad Cow) Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia
Foot and Mouth Disease* Heartwater
Lumpy Skin Disease Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Rift Valley Fever Rinderpest*
Goat and Sheep Pox Peste de pestis ruminants
African Horse Sickness* Contagious Equine Metritis
African Swine Fever*Classical Swine Fever (Hog Cholera)*
Swine Vesicular Disease Vesicular Exanthema of Swine
Equine Encephalomyelitis = West Nile Fever, Eastern, Western, & Venezuelan*
* Pose the greatest threat to the U.S.
The simplest definition of a zoonosis is a diseasethat can be transmitted from one vertebrate animal to another.
Another definition is a disease that normally infects animals, but can also be transmitted to humans.
Of the 1,407 known human disease pathogens, 816 (58%) are Zoonotic diseases.
Reportable foreign animal disease
Spread animal-to-human via blood or bite
Human-to-human spread possible
Similar in appearance to smallpox but milder
Also affects other species such as rodents
Wisconsin 2003, 7 confirmed, 34 suspect human cases
Identification and handling of animals, animal waste, and diagnostic specimens to minimize risk of transmission of disease to people and/or other animals
An extension of facility procedures
A written set of policies and procedures that communicate to the CO VMRC how the unit will manage infectious disease risks to people and animals.
It is necessary for the CO VMRC to have a BRM/IC plan.
ANY DISEASE LISTED ABOVE OR FOREIGN ANIMAL DISEASE OR ANY INFECTIOUS DISEASEOR PARASITE OF LIVESTOCK WHICH WAS NOT PEVIOUSLY KNOWN TO EXIST IN COLORADO SHALL BE REPORTED, ie: ANY DISEASE OF UNUSUAL MORBIDITY OR MORTALITY THAT DOES NOT FIT A NORMALLY EXPECTED CLINICAL PICTURE.
If an animal dies acutely and was exhibiting clinical signs of a reportable disease this incident shall be reported even though no diagnostic
testing was accomplished prior to death.
Which diseases do we worry about recognizing early?
Significant clinical consequences
Keep high risk animals isolated
Traffic flow and isolation
Viruses (Rift valley fever)
Bacteria (strep, salmonella)
Fungi (yeast, mold)
Prions (mad cow disease)
Bio-toxins (red tide, Ricin)
Droplet contact - coughing or sneezing on another person
Direct physical contact - touching an infected person, including sexual contact
Indirect contact - usually by touching soil contamination or a contaminated surface
Airborne transmission - if the microorganism can remain in the air for long periods
Fecal-oral transmission - usually from contaminated food or water sources
Vector borne transmission - carried by insects or other animals
Some diseases may use multiple routes of transmission
For example- if the animal has a history or obvious signs of GI or respiratory disease, move the animal into an isolation area ASAP
* Respiratory protection must meet OSHA/CDC guidelines with a minimum of N-95
May be the single most important bio-safety practice!
Major challenge is compliance
Reasons for noncompliance include
Lack of time to do the “right thing”
Impact of hand hygiene practices on skin condition
Improve compliance by adding hand sanitizing gels to program
Removal of visible contaminants
Must precede disinfection
Application of a suitable chemical agent for an appropriate amount of time to destroy specific infectious agents
Assess the areas to be cleaned
Remove all visible debris
Clean with water and detergent or soap
Thoroughly rinse the cleaned area
Allow the area to dry completely
Select and apply disinfectant
Allow the proper contact time
Leave the area free of animals for a sufficient amount of time
Evaluate/monitor the effectiveness of the disinfection plan
Health and safety of people and animals
Rabies and bite policies needed
10 day quarantine
Risk recognition in companion animals, livestock and wildlife
Given prior to exposure
Periodic antibody titer monitoring
Coordination with public health
Known positive cases
Exposure by animals unavailable for testing (such as wildlife)
Prophylaxis ( Greek "προφυλάσσω" to guard or prevent beforehand ) is any medical or public health procedure whose purpose is to prevent, rather than treat or cure a disease.
Even in the field, the CO VMRC must..
Defending against the potential volcanic impacts of foreign animal diseases
African Swine Fever
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
Classical Swine Fever
Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia
Exotic Newcastle Disease
Foot and Mouth Disease
Highly-Pathogenic Avian Influenza
Lumpy Skin Disease
Rift Valley Fever
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
To take the required post-test: