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PROBLEM SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 07/30/04. Objectives. Unit Goal: 23.1. Enhance the student's critical thinking and police problem solving abilities through the use of different models including the SARA and Crime Triangle.
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PROBLEM SOLVING AND CRITICAL THINKING TCLEOSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES 07/30/04
Objectives • Unit Goal: 23.1. Enhance the student's critical thinking and police problem solving abilities through the use of different models including the SARA and Crime Triangle. • 23.1.1. Define critical thinking. • 23.1.2. Define community policing. • 23.1.3. Identify the essential aspects of critical thinking. • 23.1.4. Identify four typical reasons for errors in reasoning. • 23.1.5. Identify methods of good problem solvers. • 23.1.6. Identify the four steps of the SARA model. • 23.1.7 Explain how the SARA model applies to the problem solving method. • 23.1.8 Explain the Crime Triangle • 23.1.9 Discuss how to be a Problem-Oriented Policing Agency. • 23.1.10. Participate in a group Problem Solving Case Study/Activity
Unit Goal: 23.1. Enhance the student's critical thinking and police problem solving abilities through the use of different models including the SARA and Crime Triangle.
“Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.”
Scriven, M & Paul, R. (1986). Defining Critical Thinking: A draft statement for the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking. [Online]http://www.criticalthinking.org/University/univlibrary/library.nclk
“Community policing is a policing philosophy that promotes and supports organizational strategies to address the causes and reduce the fear of crime and social disorder through problem-solving tactics and community-police partnerships.”The U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services
Dispositions: Critical thinkers are skeptical, open-minded, value fair-mindedness, respect evidence and reasoning, respect clarity and precision, look at different points of view, and will change positions when reason leads them to do so.
Criteria: To think critically, must apply criteria. Need to have conditions that must be met for something to be judged as believable. Although the argument can be made that each subject area has different criteria, some standards apply to all subjects.
Argument: Is a statement or proposition with supporting evidence. Critical thinking involves identify, evaluating, and constructing arguments.
Reasoning: The ability to infer a conclusion from one or multiple premises. To do so requires examining logical relationships among statements or data.
Point of View: The way one views the world, which shapes one’s construction of meaning. In a search for understanding, critical thinkers view phenomena from many points of view.
Procedures for Applying Criteria: Other types of thinking use a general procedure. Critical thinking makes use of many procedures. These Procedures include asking questions, making judgments, and identifying assumptions.Beyer, B.K. (1995). Critical Thinking. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation
Four typical reasons for errors in reasoning: • person fails to observe and use all the relevant facts of a problem • person fails to approach the problem in a systematic step-by-step manner, making leaps in logic and jumping to conclusions without checking them • person fails to spell out relationships fully • person is sloppy and inaccurate in collecting information and carrying out mental activities. • Whimbey, Arthur & Lochhead, Jack. (1986). Problem solving and comprehension (4th ed.), p.11.
Methods of good problem solvers: • positive attitude • concern for accuracy • breaking the problem into parts • avoiding guessing • activeness in problem solving • Whimbey, Arthur & Lochhead, Jack. (1986). Problem solving and comprehension (4th ed.), pp.25-27.
Problem-Solving Process Scanning------- identifying the problem; Analysis--- learning the problem’s causes, scope, and effects. Response----- acting to alleviate the problem; Assessment------ determining whether the response worked.
Scanning • Two or more incidents • Related in one or more way • Causes harm • Public expectation of action
Analysis • What do I need to know? • Where do I get the information?
Response • Eliminate Problem • Manage Problem • Reduce scope of Problem • Reduce Harm of Problem • Improve Process • Shift to Correct Resources
Assessment • How have we done? • Can we improve our effort? • Has the problem gone else where? • Should we continue are move on?
"For every problem there is an answer that is simple, quick, and easy, and wrong.“(H.L. Mencken)
Problem solving is an integral component of the philosophy of community policing. The problem-solving approach is a methodical process for reducing the impact of crime and disorder problems in a community.
The four-step SARA Model (Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment) for problem solving is frequently implemented by a policing agency in partnership with the community.
This model/process is implemented by the policing agency in partnership with the community.
Scanning: The identification of a cluster of similar, related or recurring incidents through a preliminary review of information, and the selection of this crime/disorder problem, among competing priorities, for future examination.
Analysis:The use of several sources of information to determine why a problem is occurring, who is responsible, who is affected, where the problem is located, when it occurs and what form the problem takes. Analysis requires identifying patterns that explain the conditions that facilitate the crime or disorder problem. Sources of information may include police data (CAD, arrest, incident data, etc.); victim and offender interviews; environmental surveys; officer, business and resident surveys; social service and other government agency data; etc.
Response:The execution of a tailored set of actions that address the most important findings of the problem analysis phase and focus on at least two of the following: (1) preventing future occurrences by deflecting offenders; (2) protecting likely victims; or (3) making crime locations less conducive to problem behaviors. Responses are designed to have a long-term impact on the problem, and do not require a commitment of police time and resources that is not sustainable over the long-term.
Assessment:The measurement of the impact(s) of the responses on the targeted crime/disorder problem using information collected from multiple sources, both before and after the responses have been implemented. Allows feedback from all resources to include the officers and community.
U.S. Department of Justice. Community Oriented Policing Services. (2001). Community Policing Resources: SARA Model Approach to Problem Solving. [On-line]. Available at http://www.usdoj.gov/cops/cp_resources/tools_tips/tt_sara.htm
Summary of Scanning Steps: • Step 1 Laundry list (compiled) of potential problems • Step 2 Problems identified • Step 3 Problems prioritized • Step 4 State the specific problemList examples of where the problem occursWhich setting is causing the most difficulty
Hypothesis: • From what you already know, what do you think is causing the problem? • General Goal statement • How will data be gathered and reported? • When will data collection begin?
Step 1 • What conditions or events precede the problem? • What conditions or events accompany the problem? • What are the problem’s consequences? • What harms result from the problem?
Step 2 • How often does the problem occur? • How long has this been a problem? • What is the duration of each occurrence of the problem?
Now that the data has been collected, should you continue with analysis or return to scanning and restate the problem?
Step 3 • Define a tentative goal • Identify resources that may be of assistance in solving the problem • What procedures, policies or rules have been established to address the problem?