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Plant Structure and Function. Specialized Tissues in Plants Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves. Roots Anchor the plant and absorb nutrients and water Mutualistic relationship with mycorrhizae and rhizobacteria Transport Nutrients to the plant Store Food.

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specialized tissues in plants plant organs roots stems and leaves
Specialized Tissues in PlantsPlant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves
  • Roots
    • Anchor the plant and absorb nutrients and water
      • Mutualistic relationship with mycorrhizae and rhizobacteria
    • Transport Nutrients to the plant
    • Store Food
specialized tissues in plants
Specialized Tissues in Plants
  • Stems
    • Support the plant
    • Transport water and nutrients
    • Protect against predators and disease
specialized tissues in plants1
Specialized Tissues in Plants
  • Leaves
    • Conduct photosynthesis
    • Increased SA:V with leaf size
    • Protect against water loss
      • Waxy cuticle
      • Stomata and Guard Cells
specialized tissues in plants2
Specialized Tissues in Plants
  • Dermal Tissue
    • Covers the plant
      • Epidermis (epi = upon) –
        • single layer of cells on the outside of the plant
      • Cuticle – layer of wax that covers the epidermis and prevents water loss (polarity?)
      • Trichomes – tiny hairlike projections for protection
      • Bark – covers the epidermis in woody plants
      • Root hair cells are found on the epidermis of roots to help absorb water (SA:V)
specialized tissues in plants3
Specialized Tissues in Plants
  • Vascular Tissue
    • Vessels that transport water and nutrients
      • Plant “bloodstream”
        • Xylem – carries water
        • Phloem – carries nutrients
vascular tissue xylem
Vascular Tissue - Xylem
  • Tracheids – hollow plant cells of the xylem with thick cell walls strengthened by lignin
    • Lignin resists water and is a major constituent in wood
    • Openings in the cell walls of tracheids allow water to pass from cell to cell and therefore be transported throughout the plant
  • Vessel Elements - hollow plants cells of xylem stacked end to end.
    • Water passes from cell to cell through slit-like openings on the ends of each cell
vascular tissue phloem
Vascular Tissue – Phloem
  • Sieve Tube Elements – cells of the phloem that are arranged end to end and allow nutrients to flow throughout the plant in a watery stream
  • Companion Cells – cells of the phloem that the sieve tube cells and aid in the movement of nutrients
specialized tissues in plants4
Specialized Tissues in Plants
  • Ground Tissue
    • Produces and Stores food (sugars)
      • Composes most of the edible portions of plants
    • Contributes to the physical support of the plant
    • Ground tissue is composed of three main types of cells
      • Parenchyma
      • Collenchyma
      • Sclerenchyma
ground tissue
Ground Tissue
  • Parenchyma
    • Makes up the highest percentage of ground tissue
      • Thin cell walls
      • Large central vacuole
      • Limited cytoplasm
    • Contain many chloroplasts in leaves and are the main sight of photosynthesis
ground tissue1
Ground Tissue
  • Collenchyma
    • Chains of strong, flexible cell walls
    • Provide support for plant organs
  • Sclerenchyma
    • Extremely thick and rigid cells walls
      • Found on seed coats (strong!)
      • Have been used to make rope from hemp
plant growth and meristems
Plant Growth and Meristems
  • Meristems – regions of specialized plant cells in which mitosis produces new cells ready for differentiation
    • The undifferentiated cells produced are much like the stem cells of animals
    • Located in parts of plants that undergo rapid growth
    • Allow even the oldest trees to produce new leaves and new reproductive organs each year

Apical Meristem– located at the end (apex) of a root or stem.

    • Leads to increase in root or stem length
    • Once produced, the new cells differentiate into new dermal, vascular, and ground tissue

Floral Meristems

  • Produce the tissues of flowers
    • Includes the plant’s reproductive organs as well as the colorful petals that surround them