How to provide high amount of EGR in diesel engines while maintaining low engine fuel consumption?
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How to provide high amount of EGR in diesel engines while maintaining low engine fuel consumption? Preliminary (short) litterature survey. Eric Ollivier CICERO meeting, 07/02/16. NOx fuel consumption trade-offs. US 07 NOx-Scenarios. Injection (pressure, timing, strategy …). Intensified EGR

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How to provide high amount of EGR in diesel engines while maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Preliminary (short) litterature survey.

Eric Ollivier

CICERO meeting, 07/02/16


NOx fuel consumption trade-offs maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

US 07 NOx-Scenarios

Injection (pressure,

timing, strategy …)

Intensified EGR

cooling

From MTZ, 07/01 : Correlation between emissions reduction and fuel consumption in passenger car DI diesel engines (study supported by FFV workgroup) [4].


Scania´s strategy for NOx emissions reduction maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Emissions control techniques on Scania’s current range of truck engines

(from www. greencarcongress.com , www.scania.com)

US 07 ?

EGR : - Euro 4 : 18% of EGR , Euro 5 : 25% of EGR

- Non Turbocompound engines : Venturi valve(suction effect)

- Turbocompound engines : Additional backpressure(No need of venturi valve)

- Fuel consumption of Euro 4 engines comparable to the Euro 3 engines

Euro 5 : High pressure injection system : Scania XPI


No additional fuel consumption ! maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Fuel consumption ?

Regulated Two-stage Turbocharging System, R2S

(on 4 cyl. 4,6L engines, other?)

Low pressure stage turbocharger

wastegate

MAN´s strategy for NOx emissions reduction

(from www. ae-plus.com , www.man.com)

Europe :-Euro 4 :EGR + PM catalyst

- Euro 5 :EGR + PM catalyst or AdBlue/SCR

US 07 ?

High pressure stage turbocharger

Air charge

cooler

bypass

(VGT as an alternative to the bypass valve)


Volvo´s strategy for NOx emissions reduction maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

(from www. greencarcongress.com)

Europe :- Exhaust gas aftertreatment with AdBlue/SCR catalyst cleaning (followed in this way by Daimler-Chrysler)

- Euro 4 : 3-4% AdBlue , Euro 5 : 5-7% AdBlue

- EGR not given up

US EPA 07 :-EGR + Diesel Particles Filter

- On Volvo D11, D13 and D16

Resulting fuel consumption ?


(High EGR rate) maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

SAE Papers (1999-2006) :

  • - EGR circuit compound (2)

  • Advanced turbocharging system (5)

  • EGR / VGT control systems (8)

  • Advanced turbocharging systems + EGR circuit compounds (2)

  • Others (3)

US 07 NOx - Scenarios


EGR circuit compound : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Low pressure loop :

  • Advantages :

  • The EGR can be cooled twice

  • P4 > P1

  • Drawbacks

  • Low response time

  • - Condensation & fouling


EGR circuit compound : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

High pressure loop :

  • Advantages :

  • - No condensation and fouling

  • Drawbacks :

  • - High charge inlet temperature

  • P2 can be higher than P3

  • Coordination of EGR valve/VGT vanes

High or Low pressure loop?

-17 papers : 17 HP loops , 2 LP loops


Increase in EGR mass flow by a EGR route with maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

reduced pressure drop (Bushwald et al. 2006)

EGR circuit compound :

Effect of pressure losses on EGR rate :


EGR circuit compound : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Effect of charge cooling on EGR rate :

Tin = 40ºC, required cooling power < 20 kW

Charge inlet temperature

for a EU4 base engine,

VNT TC, HP-EGR.

(Bushawald et al., 2006)

Increase of EGR rate at constant A/F-ratio through a modified charge air and EGR cooling system; Reference EU4 base engine

(Buchwald et al., 2006)


EGR circuit compound : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Effect of EGR temperature on charge temperature and volumetric efficiency :

(Serrano et al., 2005)


Advanced turbocharging system : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Required amount of EGR 20%

Compressor Efficiency : 77%

Turbine Efficiency : 75%

Virtual turbocharging system enabling to reach sufficient

amount of EGR to fulfill Euro 5 (Langridge et al. , 2002)


2 radial compressor maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

wheels in series

Advanced turbocharging system :

The Low speed turbo by Garett Engine boosting System (S. Arnold, 2004)


Advanced turbocharging system : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Performance of the LST compressor stage against the

state of the art single stage compressor (Arnold, 2004)


Advanced turbocharging system : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Intermediate EGR route, (Arnold 2004)


Advanced turbocharging system : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

Compressor, turbine and oerall turbo efficiency

at full load against engine speed, (Arnold 2004)


Advanced turbocharging system : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

New turbocharging strategies to reach EURO 5 :

Study of a 2 stage turbocharging system very similar to MAN-BorgWarner R2S by (Buchwald et al., 2006)

Aim : combustion lambda λc= 2

Inlet charge temperature = 40ºC

EGR-rate = 60%


Advanced turbocharging system : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

New turbocharging strategies to reach EURO 5 : 2 stage turbocharging system

Full load compressor map


Advanced turbocharging system : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

New turbocharging strategies to reach EURO 5 : 2 stage turbocharging system

25%

90%

Full load characteristics of the engine


Advanced turbocharging system : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

New turbocharging strategies to reach EURO 5 : 2 stage turbocharging system

Maximum overall TC efficiency for the 2 stage TC and the

VNT TC at maximum EGR (Buchwald et al., 2006)


Advanced turbocharging system : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

New turbocharging strategies to reach EURO 5 : 2 stage turbocharging system

Results in transient modes


  • High amount of EGR : maintaining low engine fuel consumption?

  • - To limit the amount of O2 in the combustion chamber

  • Increase the heat capacity of the mixture

  • High efficiency cooling device :

  • Increase the density and the temperature of the Air/EGR mixture

  • Results in :

  • Low combustion temperature and significant NOx emission reduction

  • Increase PM

  • Slight increase of consumption


Eu4 maintaining low engine fuel consumption?


Emission Standards for HD Diesel Engines maintaining low engine fuel consumption?


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