Combat and Disaster Psychiatry Today: From the Battle Front to the Home Front - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

combat and disaster psychiatry today from the battle front to the home front n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Combat and Disaster Psychiatry Today: From the Battle Front to the Home Front PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Combat and Disaster Psychiatry Today: From the Battle Front to the Home Front

play fullscreen
1 / 64
Combat and Disaster Psychiatry Today: From the Battle Front to the Home Front
144 Views
Download Presentation
keelty
Download Presentation

Combat and Disaster Psychiatry Today: From the Battle Front to the Home Front

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Combat and Disaster Psychiatry Today: From the Battle Front to the Home Front Elspeth Cameron Ritchie, MD, MPH COL, MC Psychiatry Consultant to the US Army Surgeon General Elspeth.Ritchie@us.army.mil

  2. General Topics • A Brief History of Combat Psychiatry • Deployment stresses in Iraq • Re-integration home • Surveillance • Assessment of Disasters • Disaster Behaviors • Basic Principles of Early Intervention • The Way Ahead

  3. A Brief History of Combat Stress • High rate of stress casualties in all wars World War I--“shell shock”, over evacuation led to chronic psychiatric conditions, lessons learned • World War II--ineffective pre-screening, “battle fatigue”, lessons relearned, 3 hots and a cot • “PIES” (proximity, immediacy, expectancy, simplicity) • “3 hots and a cot”

  4. The Korean War • Used lessons from WW I and II • Many similarities to today

  5. He is the average American boy, just under 20, who was pulled from his malted milks and basketball scores to be wounded in Korea. Back Down the Ridge, WL White

  6. After three days of such treatment…one lanky mountain boy, who had arrived trembling and sobbing that he could never go back, sat silent for a minute. Then he stood up. “Hell,” he said, “I guess somebody’s got to fight this god-damned war,” picked up his rifle and started trudging back up the trail toward the sound of the guns. Back Down the Ridge

  7. History • Vietnam • Drug and alcohol use • Misconduct • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder • Desert Storm/Shield • “Persian Gulf illnesses” • Medically unexplained physical symptoms • Questions about exposures to toxins

  8. Operations Other than War • Front line mental health treatment—PIES worked—in general, few combat stress reactions* • Somalia • Haiti • Saudi Arabia • Cuba • Balkans • Combat and operational stress control teams *Dear John, or Jane, letters still caused problems add a shower to the 3 hots

  9. 9/11

  10. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder • Reaction of fear to traumatic event • Range of symptoms • Nightmares, flashbacks, hypervigilance, numbing, disassociation • Often co-morbid with other symptoms • anxiety, depression, substance abuse

  11. Range of Deployment-Related Stress Reactions* • Irritability, bad dreams, sleeplessness • Difficulty connecting to families, employers • Behavioral difficulties • domestic violence, substance abuse, “road rage”, • suicidal, homicidal behavior • misconduct • Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) • “Compassion fatigue” • Suicide • Homicide *may also occur in those non-deployed

  12. Operation Iraqi Freedom • Initial questions about • weapons of mass destruction • Rapid optempo • Strain on families • Continual danger for • troops

  13. Initial Mental Health Issues in Iraq • Significant forward mental health presence • Dangers of travel • Troops not always able to travel to meet with practitioners • Question of a suicide cluster • Psychiatric evacuations from theater • Medical/surgical evacuations from theater

  14. Mental Health Assessment Team Report 1 • Data collected by 12 person team fall 2003 • Report released spring 2004 • Covered morale, service delivery, access to mental health--deficiencies found

  15. The Ongoing Insurgency • Extended deployment • Increasing personal threats • The scandal from Abu Ghraib • Repeated deployments • Casualties on all sides

  16. Mental Health Assessment Team II • Deployed back to Kuwait/Iraq in August 2004 • Principle mission to focus on whether recommended changes had been implemented • Report issued July 2005 • improvements made • MHAT III, OEF MHAT • pending

  17. Back Home • Preparation for the return • Educational briefings given • Emerging data • Risky Behaviors • Increased accidents, domestic violence, substance abuse,

  18. Post-Deployment Health Re-Assessment (PDHRA) • “Honeymoon” period • 90 to 180 days following deployment • Active duty and reserve component • Emphasis on behavioral health • Implementation plan complex

  19. and Back Again.... • Soldiers and Marines returning into theater for second or third time • How does that effect connections with families? • At what point do you not send Soldiers back into theater because of PTSD? • Issues of contagion, epidemic, malingering • Relationship to/between DoD, VA civilian providers

  20. High-Risk Populations • Wounded service members and their families • Psychiatrically ill patients • Families of the deceased • Medical staff and other highly exposed personnel (eg chaplains, mortuary affairs, casualty assistance officers) • Isolated Reserve component

  21. Wounded Service Members • In the past, mental health issues often overlooked • Initial euphoria about being alive • Robust DS3 program for severely wounded at tertiary facilities • New prostheses markedly improve functioning • May be succeeded by depression over loss of function, dependence on others • Transition to home a high risk period • Long-term support needed • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients • will need special attention • may first present to psychiatry, primary care

  22. Traumatic Brain Injury • “Signature wound” of this war • Evaluated in severely wounded; may be missed in others • May present to primary care, psychiatry, ER • Symptoms of: • irritability, • difficulty concentrating, • relationship, job difficulties • PTSD confounds picture • Screen for veteran status, exposure to blast

  23. Families of the Deceased • Almost 1,600 deceased • Casualty affairs officers provide assistance • Approximately 900 children have lost a parent • Many families leave military housing and community • Vet centers offering assistance • Working on outreach to these families

  24. Psychiatrically ill patients • Severely ill evacuated from theater • If they get to Landstuhl, few return • Now few inappropriate evacuations • Clinicians reporting sicker patients • Medical board system over-extended • Standards for soldiers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

  25. Challenges for Highly Exposed Personnel • Medical personnel, chaplains, Mortuary affairs, casualty assistance officers • Face secondary trauma, “compassion fatigue” • Frequent deployments • High exposure to severely wounded • Threat of personal danger • May be hard to re-integrate with family, colleagues “who have not been there” • May not want to seek treatment

  26. Strategies • Combat and Operational Stress Control • Prevention, outreach, therapy • “therapy by walking around” • Treatment • Many effective treatments for PTSD, anxiety, depression • New treatment guidelines available • DoD-VA, APA • Post-deployment health guidelines • Primary care should have central role • Other low-stigma easy access portals needed

  27. Solutions—In Progress • Deployment Cycle Support • Military One Source • Community based health care organizations (CBHCOs) • Liaison with the VA • Post-Deployment Health Re-Assessment • National education campaign • Partner with HHS (SAMSHA, NIMH) • The professional societies, schools • Academics

  28. RESET Program ?

  29. Combat is only One of the Stressors - Since 9/11 • Anthrax cases • West Nile virus • Operation Enduring Freedom • Local News (ie. Sniper attacks in DC area) • Operation Iraqi Freedom • Poison gas in Moscow • SARS • Tsunami • Katrina/Rita • Pandemic/bird flu? We are all tired…

  30. Reasons to do an Assessment • Develop strategic plan • Reports to command, families, media • Apportion resources • Target interventions To Not Do Stupid Stuff

  31. Type of Event • Natural disaster • Flood, hurricane, earthquake, Tornado, tsunami • Man-made disaster • Accident, combination • Terrorist event • Complex humanitarian emergency • War/occupation • US soldiers • Local nationals • CBRNE Events

  32. Needs Assessment • Individual • Group • Population Theme: Steel on Target

  33. The Basics FirstAssessment of Physical Needs • Numbers affected • Shelter • Food • Wounds/Illnesses • Infectious Disease • Medications Available • Fuel • Heat • Cooking • Continued violence • Mass fatalities

  34. Assessment of Mental Health Needs • Vulnerable populations • Previously mentally ill • Wounded • Bereaved • Tortured • Medications • Hospital Beds • General • Psychiatric Dead bodies generally not infectious disease risk, but are psychological toxins

  35. How to Assess Mental Health Needs • Try to gain as much information as possible before departure to affected site • On the ground assessment usually necessary • Avoid “windshield survey” • Survey/ talk to • Schools • Hospitals • Clergy • Community leaders • Shelters • Psychometric assessments • Utility?

  36. Assessment of Mental Health Resources • Personnel • Traditional mental health workers • Red Cross • Crisis counselors • Others • Crisis counseling centers • Clinics/Hospitals • Medications • Psychiatric • Medical • Language/culture Local vs “outsider”

  37. Assessment Needs to be On-going • “Honeymoon” period common following disasters • When attention and media leave, often physical and psychological needs surface • Feelings of bitterness, abandonment, anger at government • Clean-up period • Tedious, may still be dangerous

  38. International Issues • Complex humanitarian emergencies • Displaced populations • Migrants, refugees • Steps to do a Physical Assessment well-established • www.sphere.org • Assessment of mental health needs • Science is not there yet • Consider War, Trauma and Violence by Joop de Jong • WHO documents available on web • Learning from tsunami, earthquake

  39. Assessment IssuesChemical/Biological Agents • Numbers of exposed • Numbers potentially exposed • Infectivity of living and dead • Numbers presenting for care • Numbers not presenting for care? • Quarantine issues • Economic fall-out

  40. Psychological Effects of CBRNE Agent Characteristics • Invisible, odorless • Ubiquitous symptoms • Uncertainty • Novelty (Unfamiliarity) • Grotesqueness

  41. Disaster Behaviors • Getting out of the train or out of the way of the wave • Panic vs organized behavior • Family vs. Mission—for the first responders • “Which Direction Do You Run?” • Social Disarray-- • No rules, looting, • “Who gets the lifeboats?” • Or antibiotics or vaccines or gas masks or food • Sensory overload • Dead bodies, mass destruction

  42. Psychiatric Issues--Acute • Stress as reaction to terrorism • Additional fear of unknown w CBRNE • Have I been exposed? • May be worried but not well • Changes in mental status secondary to agents • Medical triage • Triage in, or triage out? • Quarantine, reverse isolation • Possible new terms: social contact, shielding, home quarantine, “snow day” • Loss, grief • Underreactions:psychological denial, fatalism

  43. Psychiatric Issues--Long term • Depression • Post Traumatic Stress Disorder • Somatic symptoms • Overreactions, eg obsessive concern w decontamination, hoarding protective equipment • Anger at government • Multiple unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) • Economic fall-out may lead to collapse of tourism, flight of business, job loss • Unemployment traditionally linked to domestic violence, suicide

  44. Evidence Based Key Principles of Early Intervention

  45. Psychological Debriefings • Concern that they may be doing more harm than good • Vicarious re-traumatization • Major conference Oct 2001 • NIMH book “Mass Violence and Early Intervention” Sept 2002 • “Aircraft carrier turning around”

  46. Basic Needs • Safety/Security/Survival • Food and Shelter • Orientation • Communication with family, friends and community

  47. Psychological First Aid • Support for distressed • Keep families together • Facilitate reunion with loved ones • Provide information/foster communication/education • Protect from further harm • Reduce physiological arousal

  48. Monitoring the recovery environment • Observe and listen to the affected • Monitor the environment for toxins • Monitor past and ongoing threats • Monitor services that are provided

  49. Outreach/Information Dissemination • “Therapy by walking around” • Using established community structures • Flyers • Websites