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THE BATTLE OF STALINGRAD

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  1. THE BATTLE OF STALINGRAD JULY, 1942 – FEBRUARY, 1943

  2. BACKGROUND • EASTERN (RUSSIAN)FRONT SITUATION - SUMMER, 1942 • AXIS (GERMAN) ARMIES CONTROL MOST OF EUROPEAN RUSSIA (USSR) • RED ARMY & USSR HAVE TAKEN MASSIVE CASUALTIES • MOST SOVIET INDUSTIRES / FACTORIES HAVE BEEN EVACUATED EAST OF URAL MTS. • MOST OBJECTIVES HAVE BEEN TAKEN OR … ARE EXPECTED TO BE TAKEN • EXAMPLES: • Army Group North – sieging Leningrad • Army Group Center – close to Moscow • Army Group South – Kiev captured, moving towards Central Asia & Oil fields RESULT? -GERMANS FEEL INVINCIBLE -GERMANS HAVE MOMENTUM -SOVIETS HAVE RESORTED TO SCORCHED-EARTH POLICY -SOVIETS HAVE CALLED ALL RESERVES INTO MILITARY -SOVIETS ARE “PLAYING FOR TIME” (DEFINE)

  3. RUSSIAN FRONT STRATEGICSITUATION, SUMMER -1942

  4. “IF I DO NOT GET THE OIL OF MAIKOP AND GROZNY, THEN I MUST END THIS WAR.” • ADOLF HITLER, 1942

  5. THE GERMAN SITUATION • GERMAN ADVANTAGES: • ARMOR ADVANTAGE • RUSSIANS STILL HAD NOT PRODUCED ENOUGH T-34 TANKS TO EFFECTIVELY CHALLENGE GERMAN ARMOR • AIR POWER: LUFTWAFFE IS… • MORE EXPERIENCED • HAS BETTER AIRCRAFT • HAS PERFECTED GROUND SUPPORT TACTICS • MORALE: GERMANS ARE CONFIDENT • MOMENTUM: GERMANS ARE ACTIVELY PURSUING / LOOKING TO DESTROY RED ARMY

  6. THE GERMAN SITUATION(cont’d.) • GERMAN DISADVANTAGES • BIGGEST PROBLEM: SUPPLY LINES ARE DANGEROUSLY OVEREXTENDED • EFFECT? EXTENSION OF SUPPLY LINES = • INCREASES CHANCE OF SUPPLIES BEING CUT OFF • REINFORCEMENTS TAKE LONGER TO GET TO STALINGRAD • MORE TROOPS NEEDED TO PROTECT SUPPLY LINES • FEWER TROOPS AVAILABLE FOR FORWARD OPERATIONS • GERMAN BLITZKRIEG TACTICS ARE DESIGNED FOR… • SPEED • SURPRISE • OPEN TERRAIN / GEOGRAPHY • LONG DISTANCES • RESULT? • KEY ELEMENTS OF BLITZKRIEG CAN’T BE EFFECTIVELY USED IN A CITY • EXAMPLE? ARMOR / TANK MOVEMENT IS LIMITED

  7. STALINGRAD, 1941 (before the battle)

  8. AERIAL VIEW, STALINGRAD AFTER THE GERMAN BOMBARDMENT

  9. STALINGRAD DURING THE BATTLE PHOTO TAKEN FROM EAST BANK OF THE VOLGA RIVER

  10. STALINGRAD SITUATION, FALL 1942

  11. OPERATION BLUE • DEFINE: THE GERMAN CAMPAIGN TO SEIZE SOUTHERN RUSSIA, THE CAUCASUS REGION, AND OIL FIELDS • WHEN? • OPERATION BEGINS = LATE JUNE, 1942 • OPERATION ENDS W/DEFEAT AT STALINGRAD • WHO/WHAT? • GERMAN ARMY GROUP SOUTH • GROUP IS DIVIDED INTO TWO SUB-GROUPS • ARMY GROUP “A” • ARMY GROUP “B” • BOTH GROUPS ARE ASSIGNED DIFFERENT TASKS & OBJECTIVES • THE PLAN: • ARMY GROUP A – SEIZE THE CAUCASUS REGION, AND ALL VITAL CITIES & RESOURCES THERE • ARMY GROUP B – • MOVE EASTWARD TOWARDS THE DON AND VOLGA RIVERS • SEIZE CITY OF STALINGRAD

  12. WHY STALINGRAD? • STALINGRAD WAS NOT THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF OPERATION BLUE • PRIMARY OBJECTIVE(S) WAS / WERE… • OIL • AGRICULTURE /FOOD • REDUCE RUSSIA’s INDUSTRIAL CAPACITY • WHY STALINGRAD? • LOCATED ON THE VOLGA RIVER • VOLGA IS ONE OF RUSSIA’s MAJOR TRANSPORTATION ROUTES • INDUSTRIAL CITY • CONTROL OF STALINGRAD WOULD PROTECT ARMY GROUP SOUTH’s FLANK (define) • LESSER REASON: CITY WAS NAMED AFETR STALIN, SO IT HAD SYMBOLIC VALUE • SEIZING STALINGRAD: ASSIGNED TO… • GERMAN 6th ARMY • GERMAN 4th PANZER ARMY

  13. PROBLEMS • GERMAN 6th IN PUTTING INCREASING #s OF TROOPS INTO STALINGRAD • EVENTUALLY CONTROL 90% OF CITY, BUT… • CANNOT GAIN TOTAL CONTROL • SOVIET 62ND ARMY IS HOLDING OUT IN CITY • RUSSIANS ARE BRINGING MORE RESERVES… • TO THE STALINGRAD AREA • ACROSS VOLGA RIVER INTO CITY • ***RED ARMY ALSO BRINGS LARGE # OF SNIPERS TO CITY (SO WHAT?) • ARMY GROUP A (INVADING THE CAUCASUS REGION) IS TOO FAR TO SUPPORT ARMY GROUP B, ESPECIALLY THE 6TH ARMY • LATE OCT./EARLY NOV.: • DANGER OF 6TH ARMY BEING CUT OFF INCREASES • RUSSIANS ARE BUILDING UP RESERVES / ARMOR ON FLANKS OF CITY • RUSSIANS IN CITY ARE FOLLOWING STALIN’s ORDERS: “NOT A STEP BACKWARD”

  14. SOVIET SITUATION • RUSSIAN 62ND ARMY: • COMMANDED BY VASILY CHUIKOV • OVERALL COMMANDER OF STALINGRAD AREA IS GEORGI ZHUKOV • 62ND ARMY’s ORDERS ARE SIMPLE =DEFEND THE CITY TO THE LAST MAN, LAST BULLET, etc. • SOVIET BATTLE PLAN IS SIMPLE: • 62nd ARMY WILL / MUST DENY GERMANS TOTAL CONTROL OF THE CITY • THIS WILL FORCE GERMANS TO COMMIT MORE TROOPS INTO CITY • RED ARMY WILL USE CITY TO HOLD GERMAN 6TH ARMY IN STATIC POSITION • RED ARMY WILL THEN LAUNCH SIMULTANEOUS ATTACKS ON GERMAN FLANKS • FLANKS WILL LINK UP WEST OF CITY • 6TH ARMY WILL CUT OFF FROM REMAINDER OF GERMAN ARMY • BUT…FLANKING ASSAULT MUST BE LAUNCHED BEFORE… • GERMANS CAN TRANSFER FORCES FROM ARMY GROUP A TO RELIEVE 6TH ARMY • SO…RED ARMY MUST QUICKLY BUILD UP ARMOR / ARTILLERY / INFANTRY RESERVES ON FLANKS • SO…TIMING IS CRITICAL (for both sides)

  15. NATURE OF THE BATTLE • WHAT WERE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BATTLE OF STALINGRAD? • VERY LITTLE ARMOR USED • MOSTLY CLOSE-QUARTER/HOUSE-to-HOUSE FIGHTING • BRUTAL HAND-TO-HAND FIGHTING • BUILDING COULD BE / WERE OFTEN OCCUPIED BY BOTH SIDES • BUILDINGS USUALLY CONVERTED INTO SMALL FORTRESSES • EXAMPLE? • FACTORIES • OFFICE BUILDINGS • SEWERS / BASEMENTS WERE OFTEN FOUGHT OVER or USED FOR SHELTER • EXTENSIVE USE OF SNIPERS BY BOTH SIDES • RESULT? • NORMAL OPEN-COUNTRY BATTLE LINES DON’T REALLY EXIST

  16. ORDER OF BATTLE • GERMAN WERMACHT: • ARMY GROUP B: • GERMAN 6TH ARMY (GEN. Von PAULUS) • GERMAN 4TH PANZER ARMY (GEN. HOTH) • ROMANIAN 3rd ARMY • ROMANIAN 4th ARMY • HUNGARIAN 2ND ARMY • ITALIAN 8TH ARMY • INITIAL STRENGTH: • 270,000 MEN • 3000 ARTILLEY PIECES • 500 TANKS • 600 AIRCRAFT

  17. ORDER OF BATTLE (cont’d.) • SOVIET UNION: • SOVIET 62ND ARMY (inside city, led by Gen. Chuikov) • DON FRONT ARMY • SOUTHWESTERN FRONT ARMY • STALINGRAD FRONT ARMY • INITIAL STRENGTH: • 187,000 MEN • 2000 ARTILLERY PIECES • 400 TANKS • 300 AIRCRAFT

  18. THE BUILD-UP OF TROOPS • BY THE TIME OF THE GERMAN SURRENDER, MASSIVE RESERVES AND EQUIPMENT HAD BEEN SENT BY BOTH ARMIES TO STALINGRAD: • EXAMPLE: • TROOP STRENGTH BY TIME OF OPERATION URANUS (SOVIET COUNTEROFFENSIVE), NOV. 1942: • SOVIETS: • 1,100,000 MEN • 15,000 ARTILLERY PIECES • 1400 TANKS • 1100 AIRCRAFT • GERMANS: • 1,000,000 MEN • 10,000 ARTILLERY PIECES • 675 TANKS • 702 AIRCRAFT

  19. GENERAL FRIEDRICH Von PAULUS,COMMANDING OFFICER,GERMAN 6th ARMY

  20. (Left) General Wolfram Von Richtofen, Luftwaffe(Right) General Erich Von Manstein, C/O Army Group Don

  21. GEN. HERMANN HOTH,COMMANDING OFFICER, GERMAN 4th PANZER ARMY

  22. GENERAL VASILY CHUIKOV,COMMANDING OFFICER,SOVIET 62ND ARMY, STALINGRAD

  23. “WE WILL DEFEND THE CITY OR DIE IN THE ATTEMPT.” • GENERAL VASILY CHUIKOV, SOVIET 62nd ARMY, STALINGRAD

  24. CHUIKOV ADDRESSES 62nd ARMY TROOPS, STALINGRAD

  25. Major GeneralAlexander I. Rodimstev,Commander,13th Guards Rifle Division,Red Army, Stalingrad

  26. MAJOR GENERAL KONSTANTIN ROKASSOVSKY,COMMANDER, DONFRONT (FLANK) FORCES, RED ARMY

  27. GENERAL CEORGI ZHUKOV, COMMANDING OFFICER,STALINGRAD AREA

  28. MARSHALL ANDREI YEREMENKO, COMMANDINGOFFICER,RED ARMYSTALINGRAD FRONT (FLANK) FORCES, STALINGRAD

  29. NIKITA KRUSCHEV, RED ARMY POLITICAL COMMISSARAT STALINGRAD

  30. GERMAN 6TH ARMY TROOPS OUTSIDE STALINGRAD

  31. GERMAN INFANTRY IN STALINGRAD, SEPTEMBER, 1942

  32. ARTIST’s VIEW OF STALINGRAD FIGHTING

  33. German troops in factory rubble, Stalingrad

  34. STANDARD RED ARMY COLD WEATHER INFANRTY GEAR,1941-43

  35. RUSSIAN SNIPER VASILY ZAITSEV, STALINGRAD, 1942

  36. VASILY ZAITSEV DISPLAYSHIS MOISIN-NAGANTSNIPER RIFLE255 CONFIRMED KILLS, INCLUDING 11 SNIPERS

  37. GEN. CHUIKOV INSPECTS ZAITSEV’s RIFLE