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Physics 129, Fall 2010; Prof. D. Budker. Introduction to particle physics Part III. The amazing case of the neutral kaons. See, for example, Henley & Garcia: Subatomic Physics Prelude: the Double Well problem Parity eigenstates : Parity conservation:. With no interaction:.

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the amazing case of the neutral kaons
The amazing case of the neutral kaons
  • See, for example, Henley & Garcia: Subatomic Physics
  • Prelude: the Double Well problem
  • Parity eigenstates:
  • Parity conservation:

With no interaction:

With interaction:

Symmetry:

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons1
The amazing case of the neutral kaons
  • See, for example, Henley & Garcia: Subatomic Physics
  • Also: the Feynman Lectures, V. 3
  • Perturbation theory:

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons2
The amazing case of the neutral kaons

What happens if we drop a particle in one well ?

Double Well Mathematica tutorial

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons3
The amazing case of the neutral kaons

Meet the Kaons…

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons4
The amazing case of the neutral kaons
  • Opposite strangeness for K and K-bar
  • Different particles
  • But both can decay to 2π
  • This is because weak interactions can change S

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons5
The amazing case of the neutral kaons

K-barK

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

interlude flavor mixing by weak interactions
Interlude: flavor mixing by weak interactions

The Cabibbo angle represents the rotation of the mass eigenstate vector space formed by the mass eigenstates into the weak eigenstate vector space formed by the weak eigenstates . θC = 13.04°

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons6
The amazing case of the neutral kaons
  • Gall-Mann & Pais (1955): “double well” effects
  • Analog of the antisymmetricand symmetric states:
  • Neither C nor P respected by weak interactions, but…

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons7
The amazing case of the neutral kaons
  • A K can decay into  (fast if allowed) or  (slow)
  • But how does a K0decay?
  • Say, at t=0, we make
  • Two-mode decay!

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons8
The amazing case of the neutral kaons
  • Experimental challenge: does K0 have a long component?

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons9
The amazing case of the neutral kaons
  • Strangeness oscillations
  • K 0 --- onlys-bar quark is present
  • 0 --- s quark is present again!

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons10
The amazing case of the neutral kaons

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons11
The amazing case of the neutral kaons
  • Regeneration
  • Light polarization analogy

KS K1;KL K2

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

the amazing case of the neutral kaons12
The amazing case of the neutral kaons
  • Another (incomplete) analogy:
  • Bi-frequency (Zel’dovich) Pendulum

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

cp violation in neutral kaons
CP violation in neutral kaons

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

cp violation in neutral kaons1
CP violation in neutral kaons

In 1963, a beam from BNL's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron and the pictured detectors salvaged from the Cosmotron were used to prove the violation of conjugation (C) and parity (P) - winning the Nobel Prize in physics for Princeton University physicists James Cronin and Val Fitch.

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

cp violation in neutral kaons2
CP violation in neutral kaons
  • Essential phenomenon: KL 2π(b.r.  2·10-3)
  • Was even harder to swallow that P violation
  • Many weird explanations; all proven wrong
  • Interference with regenerated Ks
  • More recently --- also B mesons
  • Direct CP violation --- penguin diagrams

James Watson Cronin Val Logsdon Fitch

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980 "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

cp violation in neutral b mesons
CP violation in neutral B-mesons…

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

time reversal t invariance
Time reversal (T) invariance?
  • Arrow of time
  • Macroscopic (thermo-dynamical) vs. microscopic
  • Permanent Electric Dipole Moments: P-odd and T-odd
  • “Zel’dovich Moments:”
  • do unstable particles have EDM that do not violate T ?
  • Searches for EDM

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

cpt and spin statistics
CPT and Spin-Statistics
  • Theorems in Quantum Field Theory
  • No consistent theoretical framework for violations
  • Need to test anyway…

Physics 129, Fall 2010, Prof. D. Budker; http://budker.berkeley.edu/Physics129_2010/Phys129.html

identical particles the ultimate equality
Identical particles: the ultimate equality
  • Individualism: the ultimate diversity
  • Permutation symmetry postulate
  • Spin-Statistics Theorem (SST)
prof richard p feynman 1918 1988
Prof. Richard P. Feynman(1918-1988)

Feynman’s Lectures on Physics, V. 3:

how landau yang theorem

Doesn’t go because no symmetric statefor two photons with J=1

Landau, L. D., Dokl. Akad. Nauk., USSR 60, 207-209 (1948)

How? Landau-Yang Theorem!
slide26

Experimental Tests of PSPsee: Spin-Statistics Connection and Commutation Relations, AIP conference proceedings #545, R.C.Hilborn and G.M.Tino, eds., 2000

Photons

 No direct tests (before present work)

High energy physics:branching ratios for L-Y forbidden decays

ortho-Ps, J/(1S), (2S); typ. 10-4-10-5alsoC-violating

Z noC-violation, but no direct coupling21

 Difficult questions: limits from lasers and static limit…

the degenerate two photon transition selection rule

S. N. Bose

The degenerate two-photon transition selection rule

Destructive interference of two quantum paths

the berkeley experiment
The Berkeley Experiment

Animated version: YouTube: Test of Bose-Einstein statistics for photons

new force
New Force!

Alec Tewsley-Booth