Psychological Disorders. Learning Outcomes:. Describe symptoms and prevalence of one disorder from two of the following groups: Anxiety disorders Affective disorders Eating disorders Analyze etiologies of one disorder from one disorder from two of the above groups.
Learning Outcomes: • Describe symptoms and prevalence of one disorder from two of the following groups: • Anxiety disorders • Affective disorders • Eating disorders • Analyze etiologies of one disorder from one disorder from two of the above groups. • Discuss cultural and gender variations in prevalence of disorders.
Anxiety Disorders • Includes a range of disorders characterized by the experience of anxiety or fear. • Includes phobias, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), social anxiety disorder (AKA social phobia), generalized anxiety disorder. • Your book focuses on specific phobia.
ABCS Symptoms • Symptoms described in the DSM-IV can be broken down into four categories: • Affective (related to mood or emotion) • Behavioral • Cognitive • Somatic (related to the body) • Book’s example: specific phobia. • A symptoms: feelings of terror, dread, loss of control. • B symptoms: avoiding things the person is afraid of. • Can you think of what the Cognitive and Somatic symptoms of specific phobia might be?
Etiology: Biological level • Can be explained by: • Evolutionary adaptation • Genetic susceptibility • The action of neurotransmitters in specific regions in the brain • The role of hormones • The fight or flight response is generally considered to be the basis of the anxiety reaction. • Classical conditioning could also explain specific phobias.
Etiology: Cognitive level • Cognitive schemas are responsible for an increased and maladaptive perception of threat, a misinterpretation of environmental stimuli that triggers the fear response. (Beck and Emery model) • Bandura’s self-efficacy theory has been used to account for the causes of phobias, focusing on an individual’s expectations about their ability to perform a particular task relating to the source of their phobia.
Etiology: Sociocultural level • Differences across cultures must be accounted for somehow. • For instance, research by Davey et al. (1998) indicates that ratings of disgust and fear for some animals were much lower in India than Japan. • Also, the “masculinity” of a country appears to influence the prevalence of phobias. (Iancu et al. 2007) (p. 162 in book)
Sociocultural cont’d. • Members of different cultural groups tend to have different phobias. • Chapman et al. found that African Americans held more fears, with the greatest number grouped in the natural environment category (e.g. fear of deep water or storms) whereas Caucasian Americans tended to hold most fear over situations (e.g. public speaking or flying).