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Standards and Standardization. Outline of Presentation. Targets, benefits and levels of standardization Meaning of Standardization Modern development in Standardization Modern Concept Targets and benefits of standardization. Standardization growth in developing countries

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outline of presentation
Outline of Presentation
  • Targets, benefits and levels of standardization
    • Meaning of Standardization
    • Modern development in Standardization
    • Modern Concept
    • Targets and benefits of standardization.
    • Standardization growth in developing countries
    • Structure of national Standardization System
meaning of standardization history
Meaning of Standardization(History)
  • This term is derived for the verb “Standardize” used for estimating the object and its value in comparison with its similar, so a standard is a scale or an estimate.
  • Standardization gained recently a definite meaning. In general it means that it attempts to consolidate specifications, standards and administration methods and ensuring quality on the level of a certain homeland region or whole world.
  • The oldest standards which the human being found, were those relating to weights and dimensions which were essential in any society such as sales and purchases of commodities and lands.
meaning of standardization history1
Meaning of Standardization(History)
  • Then Islam (The Seal of Religions) came, urging for the use of legal units away from fraudulence which was clear in Koran “Woe unite the defrauders: those who when they take the measure from mankind, demand it full. But if they measure units them or weight for them, they cause them loss”
modern development in standardization
Moderndevelopment in Standardization
  • French revolution stepped in the field of :
    • The dimension and scale as it transferred the Standards for being rules of the state.
    • Established the academic college and entrusted it in laying down the rules and bases of the metric system.
    • Complications for consumers and producers appeared.
    • Integrated standards as a guide for the producers to produce what can be only sold and as a guide for consumers to achieve their demands.
    • The integration of standards and coordination among professional complexes such as engineers and industrial associations.
modern development in standardization1
Modern development in Standardization
  • The First World War came and standardization appeared as an industrial order creating big production guaranteeing reciprocity. This is what is exactly required by the war community.
  • The president of the American Engineers Association Stating that the American Industry can increase its production to about %50 if standardization system is applied.
  • Then after the second world war, all experiences extracted form the fist world war were effective in integrating the weapons of the allies after a lot of efforts were wasted at the beginning of war due to differences in standards.
modern development in standardization2
Modern development in Standardization
  • At the end of the second world war, the industrial countries started to renew their industries, facilitating production and renewing the products standards, and raising the quality level. They reconsidered the standards which were already on forced under the war circumstances.
  • The International Standardization Institutions(ISO) established to develop the awareness of standardization especially in the developing countries
modern concept
Modern Concept
  • Unbiased authorities to put standards to consumer goods and integrate the standards to work on the level of the whole state marked by objectivity and neutrality, representing the view points of all concerned parties.
  • At the same time, they should resolve the industrial problems and protect markets and consumers.
  • Standardization is a process of laying down and applying rules for organizing a certain activity in favor and cooperation of all concerned parties particularly for achieving the ideal gross economy and taking into account the performance circumstances and safety considerations.
modern concept1
Modern Concept
  • Standardization is based on the stable results of science technology and experience at present, which no obstacles against future development. The applications are as follows:

1: Identification and integration the units of standards terms and codes.

2: Putting standards for goods and their war of testing.

3: Laying down the regulation of quality and the rules of issuing the conformance marks and certificates.

standardization relation with sciences
Standardization Relation with Sciences:
  • Standardization arises in human communities as a response to their basic needs.
  • It basically aims for organizing transactions and investigating their accuracy and fair play.
  • Standardization uses the most modern achievements of science and technology which the community gained.
  • procedures technical tests laboratories, technical inspection design and implementations rules packing transport handling and storage methods, preservation of health, safety, environment protections and information supply.
targets and benefits of standardization
Targets and Benefits of Standardization:
  • Standardization at the beginning was limited to weights, dimensions and size for organizing the daily transactions in agriculture, trade, and then burst into industry in a strict development, and extended to service, communication, transport, electronics and computer activities etc.
  • Standardization General Targets:

Standardization depends on a set of targets for identifying the value of those dealing with it within the given limits of accuracy and knowledge.

targets and benefits of standardization1
Targets and Benefits of Standardization:
  • Reflections of Standardization main Targets:
    • General balance among parties
    • Public interest
    • Harmony
    • Environment Preservation
    • Safety and consumer Protection
    • Identification and improvement of Product Quality
    • Rationalization
    • World language
general balance among parties
General balance among parties
  • When standards appeared in favor of a party, and issued by a particular factory or general associations representing an industrial complex, they encountered negative reactions from other parties.
  • The issue of standards by the producer who is the strongest parties of those who are concerned without the participation of other parties will lose confidence in spite of keeping up with the scientific bases.
  • An ideal equilibrium among parties who are concerned in production consuming, distribution, export and import.
  • EXAMPLE (setting up standardization committee for sausage)
public interest
Public interest
  • (Public interest) as quality and safety only are no longer to be observed and the effects on productive and consuming parties as the concept of public interest emerged i.e. the effect on the whole national economy.
  • The waste of general resources should be decreased and be maintained for successive generations.
  • Encourage the export of national products to international markets or can be used in a certain way for protecting the national industry from unfair competition.
  • The most important effect of various standardization activities is the direct effect on the internal and overseas trade, as they become the national standards in judging the quality of commodities and services in the national market.
  • The most important positive effects of standardization is the attempt of harmonizing the commodities and services with the environmental circumstances or with the expected circumstances of application.
  • The commodities and services should contain characteristics and qualities conformable with the circumstances to which will be exposed. Otherwise, they will rapidly fail in performing their expected tasks even if the input items of the best quality fit other circumstances.
  • The standards and systems suitable for cold or wet weather will not be the same which fit the hot or dry country.
  • It is of great importance that the standards are based on the bases of research and study, representing the fact and metting the physical requirements.
  • The international agreements of World Trade Organization allowed to enforce the conditions which fit the national ones provided that any difference from the international standards should be based on scientific bases to keep up with the harmony basis, and not as a means for distinguishing between the national or imported commodities or supporting the national products.
environment preservation
Environment Preservation
  • There is direct relation between development and environment pollution with different elements in water, earth and air.
  • The importance of environment preservation increased after it was clear that development will not affect surroundings only, but will have great universal effects.
  • The topic of environment preservation has the priority in standardization activities for compelling the different countries to adopt the international standards which will be identified in spite of the obvious conflict between the standards and the speed and method of development
safety and consumer protection
Safety and consumer Protection
  • Protecting the community: individuals and groups from the negative effects of the industrial growth and from dangers resulting from the industrial products.
  • legislations and laws started to incriminate any harms incurred to the consumer and due to the upsurge of the roles of the committees of consumer protection.
  • The safety standards became the topic of compulsory application even in countries which do not follow the compliance concept of standards.
  • The standards handled new domains other than the domains of limiting the characteristics and their standard methods such as the bases and methods of design and implementation and conditions of storage, transport, handling, labeling and the correct methods of use.
identification and improvement of product quality
Identification and improvement of Product Quality
  • Facilitate in reaching the suitable levels of quality of commodities and product in conformity with the requirements of consuming markets in compatible with the encountered circumstances.
  • The successive developments in the fields of test, technical inspection, calibration and adjustment of various industrial measuring instruments and means of quality assurance started to work spontaneously on creating positive effects through the insertion of continuous developments in quality.
  • The direct effects of standardization reduce the costs of production as a result of recognizing the production requirements and the accuracy and level of product quality and purchasing the suitable instruments and raw materials and testing the techniques which fit quality.
  • The concepts of managing and assuring quality with the adjustment methods of product quality helped in disposing off the wastes resulting from the rise of the percentage of non – conformable product.
  • The simplicity of production and reducing standards in accordance with the market requirements have facilitated the processes of storage. Maintenance and services after purchase.
  • The other means such as conformity certificates and quality marks helped organizations in gaining trust.
world language
World language
  • The human being was aspiring for a long time to have a unified world language which can be understood in the east and in the west, increasing understanding, supporting cooperation and removing misunderstanding caused by difference in meaning and significance. The human being succeed in integrating the same in standardization.
  • When the human being talks about the distance between two stars or two planets, he talks in terms understood every where.
  • When any expert in standardization observes the results of testing any material manufactured in an y country, he can judge the quality extent of its suitability in his country.
standardization growth in developing countries
Standardization Growth in Developing Countries:
  • Most national standardization systems in developing countries are governmental and financed fully by the government as there are no productive organizations
  • Standards optional in the advanced countries due to the enormous progress in the processes of industrial development in which the quality levels in most of them exceed the level of national standards
  • Standardization including the industrial or legal calibration and testing and certification as their systems are not sufficient
standardization levels
Standardization Levels

The level of any activity of standardization it classified in accordance with the parties, who participate in its preparation or who are affected by it or undertake to comply with it in any form of contracts or agreements.

  • Individual Level
  • Organization Level
  • Union's and vocational associations level
  • The National level
  • Regional level
  • International Level
structure of national standardization systems
Structure of National Standardization Systems
  • organization of the national standardization systems is the represent the different national points of view the dominating structure in most standardization systems consists of the following:
    • Management Boards
    • Administration Staff
    • Technical Committees
management boards
Management Boards
  • For securing the partnership of all parties and national sectors in a balanced way
  • The higher authority of the system is normally authorized to a council representing the main authorities of the national economy
  • Designing the general policy of the system and the supervision of the financial and administrative matters for ensuring the good progress of the system and
  • Approving the standards the financial and administrative charts and the final accounts.
administration staff
Administration staff
  • Organizes the work of different departments and committees
  • Prepares the agenda of the management board and keeps and collects the necessary information
  • Guaranteeing the balanced representation of various concerning parties
  • Carrying out the other activities in ratification testing , certification and training and other matters necessary for conducting the staff activities
technical committees
Technical Committees
  • Preparing and developing standardization activities
  • committees taking care of the matters pertaining to the national economy sector such as the food, agricultural electrical, mechanical or chemical sectors, they involve the efficient representatives of the concerned sector. And other authorities such as universities, research centers and chambers of commerce…….