Piaget’s four stage theory of cognitive development Piaget developed four stages to his theory of cognitive development: 1. Sensorimotor Stage 2. Pre-Operational Stage 3. Concrete Operational Stage 4. Formal Operational Stage
1. Sensorimotor StageBirth-2 Years Development of Object Permanence Initially the baby cannot understand an object exists out of sight. As the baby reaches around 7/8 months old a child will begin to understand the object/person still exists when out of sight. • D:\Users\08470047\Documents\Unit 1 Psychology\Piaget - Stage 1 - Sensorimotor, Object Permenence.flv
Development of Goal Directed Behaviour The sensorimotor infant also develops the ability to carry out goal-directed behaviour; that is, behaviour which is carried out with a particular purpose in mind. The infant begins to develop this ability towards the end of the sensorimotor stage, working out various ways to obtain things they want.
2. Pre-Operational Stage2-7 Years • Toddler can understand the use of symbols and language. This is an example of symbolic thinking, for example; pretend play. • Language is now understood. • Animism: child understands ‘bad table’, believes inanimate objects have feelings as they do. • Egocentrism: can only see the world from their own point of view • D:\Users\08470047\Documents\Unit 1 Psychology\Egocentrism.flv
Transformation — understanding that something can change from one state (form or structure) to another. • Centration - a tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and not on others due to their inability to understand: • Conservation- recognition that the properties of an object or substance do not change when its appearance is altered in some superficial way. • Reversibility- ability to reverse or negate an action by mentally performing the opposite action D:\Users\08470047\Documents\Unit 1 Psychology\Piaget - Stage 2 - Preoperational - Lack of Conservation.flv
3. Concrete Operational Stage7-12 Years Here children are said to think more logically about real objects and experiences Some examples of operational thought • Conservation • Reversibility • Logic • Classification • ability to create relationships between things.
Conservation of volume. A child who understands this concept recognises at step 3 that, despite the different shapes of the glasses, C and D hold the same volume (amount) of liquid.
Wooden bead experiment — an example of a task used to assess classification. The pre-operational child who is asked to state whether there are more brown beads than wooden beads, will state that there are more brown beads. However, the concrete operational child will be able to identify that there are more wooden ones because white beads are also wooden.
LEARNING ACTIVITY 5.21Matching exercise (Page 210) __ reversibility (a) understanding that objects still exist even if they cannot be seen or touched __ egocentrism (b) understanding that an object’s weight, mass, volume or area remains the same even if the object changes in appearance __ object permanence (c) following a line of reasoning back to its original starting point __ conservation (d) seeing the world only from one’s own point of view __ animism (e) changing an existing mental idea to fit new information __ transformation (f) organising information into categories based on common features __ centration (g) taking in new information and fitting it into an existing mental idea __ classification (h) believing that every object has some kind of consciousness __ accommodation (i) understanding the process whereby something changes from one state to another ___ assimilation (j) focusing on one quality of an object at a time
4. Formal Operational Stage12 Years and Over • The child shows logical thinking and is able to work through abstract problems and use logic without the presence of concrete manipulation. Abstract thinking — a way of thinking that does not rely on being able to see or visualise things in order to understand concepts (as the child in the concrete operational stage does). For example, an adolescent is able to understand intangible concepts such as ‘What is honesty?’
Logical thinking-as individuals move through this stage, they are able to develop strategies to solve problems, identify a range of possible solutions to problems, develop hypotheses (predictions and explanations) and systematically test solutions. formal operational child.flv Learning Activity 5.22 – Page 212 Homework: Learning Activity 5.26 Page 214