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Lecture items. Compositions of the Uphole- Downhole Instruments. Field Operation (Data Acquisition, Processing and Transmission) Log Runs Borehole Environment opposite a Permeable Zone. Structure of a Log head. Recording Format Images logs Basic reservoir characteristics.

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Lecture items
Lecture items

  • Compositions of the Uphole- Downhole Instruments.

  • Field Operation (Data Acquisition, Processing and Transmission)

  • Log Runs

  • Borehole Environment opposite a Permeable Zone.

  • Structure of a Log head.

  • Recording Format

  • Images logs

  • Basic reservoir characteristics


Compositions of the uphole downhole instruments
Compositions of the Uphole- Downhole Instruments.

  • Uphole Instruments include the Logging Truck and the Rig. The logging Truck mainly consists of mechanical Winches and ordinary driving machine.

  • Downhole Instruments are represented by Cables and Sondes.

  • Sondes differ in function from measurement to another based on the required physical property to be measured (GR , Resistivity, Neutron, Sonic, Density, Magnetic, Thermal, etc)

  • Sonde normally consists of two main parts:

  • Sensor: It is an electronically complicated part used for picking the required property. It is usually shielded with fibers in the modern tools.

  • Cartridge: Surrounding the sensor in the modern tools and do three functions:

  • * Powering the sensor to be ON/OFF .

  • * Processing the acquired data (First step of processing).

  • * Data transmission along cables to the up-hole instruments.




Field operation
Field Operation

  • Data Acquisition (by Sondes)

  • Data Processing (Three steps)

  • Data Transmission (Two stages)




Borehole environment
Borehole Environment

When a hole is drilled into a formation, the rock and the fluids in it (rock-fluid system) are altered in the vicinity of the borehole. A well’s borehole and the rock surrounding it are contaminated by the drilling mud, which affects logging measurements. Figure 1 is a schematic illustration of a porous and permeable formation which is penetrated by a borehole filled with drilling mud.




Lecture items

  • dh – hole diameter

  • di – diameter of invaded zone (inner boundary; flushed zone)

  • dj – diameter of invaded zone (outer boundary; invaded zone)

  • Drj – radius of invaded zone (outer boundary)

  • hmc – thickness of mudcake

  • Rm – resistivity of the drilling mud

  • Rmc – resistivity of the mudcake

  • Rmf – resistivity of mud filtrate

  • Rs – resistivity of shale

  • Rt – resistivity of uninvaded zone (true resistivity)

  • Rw – resistivity of formation water

  • Rxo – resistivity of flushed zone

  • Sw – water saturation of uninvaded zone

  • Sxo – water saturation of flushed zone





Annulus zone
Annulus zone

  • An annulus profile is often recorded on a log because it rapidly dissipates in a well. The annulus profile is detected only by an induction log run soon after a well is drilled. However, it is very important to a geologist because the profile can only occur in zones which bear hydrocarbons. As the mud filtrate invades the hydrocarbon-bearing zone, hydrocarbons move out first. Next, formation water is pushed out in front of the mud filtrate forming an annular (circular) ring at the edge of the invaded zone. The annulus effect is detected by a relatively lower resistivity values.







Basic reservoir characteristics
Basic reservoir characteristics

  • Porosity,φ (Total, effective, primary, secondary and intercrystalline)

  • Permeability (K) (Absolute, relative)

  • Saturation (S) (Sw, Sxo, Sh, So, Sg, Shr, Shm) and their interrelationships.


Lecture items

POROUS MEDIUM

STANDARD REALITY



Lecture items