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    1. Lecture items Self Potential Log * Theory of measurement. -Shale-base line& Sand line -SSP, PSP and SP log readings * Factors affecting on log readings. * Applications. Resistivity Logs * Definition. * Types * Units& Presentation. * Theories of measurement. * Factors affecting on log readings. * Applications.

    14. Rmf/Rw (Salinity effect) Fresh mud: negative SP, Saline mud: positive SP. Shale or clay content Shale reduces SP. Permeability Presence of hydrocarbon Bed thickness: SP decreases when bed thickness decreases. Invasion: Reduces SP. Mud filtrate: The magnitude and direction of SP deflection from the shale baseline depends on relative resistivities of the mud filtrate and the formation water. Resistive formations Factors affecting SP log measurements

    23. Rw calculation from SP

    26. Differentiation between shaly, clean and shale zones. Differentiation between Permeable and non-permeable zones. Calculation of Rw. Determination of the volume of shale. For correlation purposes For sedimentological analysis and facies studies. Applications

    30. A good example of this phenomenon is shown in the figure attached. In the upper sandstone, "U", the SP log shows a deflection to the right, indicating formation water to be fresher than the drilling mud, while in the lower sandstone, "L", the deflection is to the left, showing the formation water to be more saline.