apostrophe and hyphen n.
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Apostrophe and Hyphen

Apostrophe and Hyphen

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Apostrophe and Hyphen

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  1. Apostrophe and Hyphen

  2. Apostrophe • Three uses of the apostrophe: • To show possession (ownership) • To show plural forms • To show where letters or numbers have been omitted

  3. Apostrophe - Possession • Singular nouns • Nouns not ending in s, add an apostrophe and s. • bone of the dog = dog’s bone • laptop of the student = student’s laptop • Nouns ending in s, add and apostrophe and s. • toy of James = James’s toy • appointment of the boss = boss’s appointment • Noun of more than one syllable, add apostrophe alone. • testimony of the witness = witness’ testimony • staff of Moses = Moses’ staff

  4. Apostrophe - Possession • Plural Nouns • Nouns ending in s, add apostrophe • battle plans of the armies = armies’ battle plans • notes of the reporters = reporters’ notes • Nouns not ending is s, add apostrophe and s • clothing of the men = men’s clothing • toys of the children = children’s toys • Possessive personal pronouns (his, hers, theirs, ours, yours)and relative pronoun (whose) do not require an apostrophe.

  5. Apostrophe - Possession • Possessive personal pronouns (his, hers, theirs, ours, yours)and relative pronoun (whose) do not require an apostrophe. • This sandwich is yours. The pizza is theirs. • Whose books did you borrow? • Indefinite Pronouns (one, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody, etc.) require an apostrophe and s. • This job is somebody’s responsibility. • One’s college decision is an important one.

  6. Apostrophe - Possession • Hyphenated words, names of organization, business firms, words showing joint possession – add apostrophe and s to last word • sister-in-law’s recipe • American Cancer Society’s telethon • Ben and Jerry’s ice cream • Tim and Tom’s dog

  7. Apostrophe - Possession • When two or more persons possess something individually, add an apostrophe and s to both names • Joe’s and Steve’s paper routes • buyer’s and seller’s signatures • Words like minute, hour, day, week, month, year, etc. and words that indicate amounts in cents or dollars used as possessive adjectives require apostrophes. • week’s delays, four weeks’ delay • one cent’s worth, ten cents’ worth • one dollar’s worth, five dollars’ worth

  8. Apostrophe – Plural Forms • Use apostrophe and s to form the plural of numbers, letters, and signs, and of words referred to as words

  9. Hyphen • Two functions • To divide words at the end of a line • To form compounds

  10. Hyphen – dividing words • Use hyphen to divide a word at the end of a written or typed line. A word must always be divided between syllables. • Wrong: When he spoke to me , it was obv- ious that he didn’t recognize me. Right: When he spoke to me, it was ob- vious that he didn’t recognize me.

  11. Hyphens - forming compounds • Use a hyphen with compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine and with fractions used as adjectives. • Fine hundred and forty-five • Three-quarters-length stockings • A two-thirds majority • ( two thirds of the voters – two modifying thirds)

  12. Hyphens -- forming compounds • Use hyphens with prefixes ex-, self-, all-, and with suffix –elect, and with all prefixes before a proper noun or proper adjective • ex-champion mid-September • self-confidence trans-Canadian • mayor-elect pre-Renaissance

  13. Hyphens -- forming compounds • Hyphenate a compound adjective when it precedes the word it modifies (two words become a single modifier) • the well-known actor (The actor is well known.) • the soft-spoken woman (The woman is soft spoken.) • a best-selling novel (The novel is best selling.)

  14. Hyphens -- forming compounds • Use hyphen to prevent confusion or awkwardness. semi-invalid rather than semiinvalid co-operation rather than cooperation re-form a line rather than reform a line re-mark the papers rather than remark the papers

  15. Sources Hairston, Maxine and John J. Ruszkiewicz. The Scott Foresman Handbook for Writers.Scott, Foresman and Company: Glenview. 1988. Print Rozakis, Laurie E., Ph.D. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Grammar and Style. Second Edition. USA: Alpha. 2003. Print Warriner, John. Warriner’s English Grammar and Composition: Fifth Course. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. 1982. Print.