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Deterioration of Concrete Roads. Concrete Roads. Joint Spalling Punch outs Cracking Faulting Slab failures Riding Quality Models From USA Chile. Types of Deterministic Models. Absolute (Concrete HDM-4) Predicts the future condition CONDITION = f(a0, a1, a2)

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Deterioration of Concrete Roads


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    1. Deterioration of Concrete Roads

    2. Concrete Roads • Joint Spalling • Punch outs • Cracking • Faulting • Slab failures • Riding Quality Models From • USA • Chile 2

    3. Types of Deterministic Models • Absolute (Concrete HDM-4) • Predicts the future condition CONDITION = f(a0, a1, a2) • Limited to conditions model developed for • Problems with calibration • Incremental (Asphalt HDM-4) • Predicts the change in condition from the current condition:  CONDITION = f(a0, a1, a2) • Can use any start point so much more flexible 3

    4. Concrete Roads Surface Types 4

    5. Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement without Dowels 5

    6. Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement with Dowels 6

    7. Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavement 7

    8. Continuously Reinforced Concrete Pavement 8

    9. Distress Modes 9

    10. Structural Characteristics • The principal data for predicting the deterioration of concrete pavements: • Properties of materials • Percentage of reinforcement steel • Drainage conditions • Load transfer efficiency (across joints, and between slabs and shoulder) • Widened outside lanes 10

    11. Cracking • Transverse cracking occur due to high stress levels in the slabs or defects originating from material fatigue • The stresses are caused by the combined effect of thermal curling, moisture-induced curling and traffic loading 11

    12. Transverse Cracking 12

    13. Cracking in JP Pavements • Transverse cracking (% of slabs cracked) is modelled as a function of cumulative fatigue damage in the slabs and: • Cumulative ESALs • Temperature gradient • Material properties • Slab thickness • Joint spacing 13

    14. Cracking in JR Pavements • The number of deteriorated transverse cracks per km is predicted as a function of: • Cumulative ESALs • Pavement age • Slab thickness and Ec • Percentage of reinforcement steel, PSTEEL • Base type • Climate/environment (FI, MI) 14

    15. Curling 15

    16. Curling 16

    17. Curling and Traffic Loading 17

    18. Curling and Corner Distresses 18

    19. Faulting • Faulting is caused by the loss of fine material under a slab and the increase in fine material under nearby slabs • This flow of fine material is called pumping, and is caused by the presence of high levels of free moisture under a slab carrying heavy traffic loading • The effects of thermal and moisture-induced curling and lack of load transfer between slabs increase pumping 19

    20. Faulting 20

    21. Faulting • The average transverse joint faulting is predicted as a function of: • Cumulative ESALs • Slab thickness • Joint spacing and opening • Properties of material • Load transfer efficiency • Climate/environment (FI, PRECIP, DAYS90) • Base type • Widened outside lanes 21

    22. Faulting 22

    23. Faulting 23

    24. Spalling • Transverse joint spalling is the cracking or breaking of the edge of the slab up to a maximum of 0.6 m from the joint. • Transverse joint spalling can be caused by: • Presence of incompressible materials • Disintegration of concrete under high traffic loading • Improper consolidation of the concrete in the joint • Wrongly designed or built load transfer system 24

    25. Spalling • Transverse joint spalling is predicted as a function of: • Pavement age • Joint spacing • Type of seal • Dowel corrosion protection • Base type • Climate/environment (FI, DAYS90) 25

    26. Spalling 26

    27. Spalling 27

    28. Failures in CR Pavements • Localised failures include loosening and breaking of reinforcement steel and transverse crack spalling • These are caused by high tensile stresses induced in the concrete and reinforcement steel by traffic loading and changes in environmental factors • The number of failures is predicted as a function of: • Slab thickness • Percentage of reinforcement steel • Cumulative ESALs • Base type 28

    29. Present Serviceability Index • This is a subjective user rating of the existing ride quality of a pavement (ranging from 0 extremely poor to 5 extremely good) • For JR pavements, the change in PSR is calculated as a function of cracking, spalling and faulting • For CR pavements, the change in PSR is calculated as a function of slab thickness, cumulative ESALs and pavement age 29

    30. Roughness • For JP concrete pavements, roughness is calculated as a function of faulting, spalling and cracking • For JR and CR concrete pavements, roughness is calculated as a function of PSR 30

    31. Roughness on JPCP • IRIo • Transversal Cracks • Faulting • Spalling f IRI = IRI IRIo ESAL 31

    32. Property of Materials • Modulus of elasticity of concrete, Ec • Modulus of rupture of concrete, MR28 • Thermal coefficient of concrete,  • Drying shrinkage coefficient of concrete,  • Poisson’s ratio for concrete,  • Modulus of elasticity of dowel bars, Es • Modulus of elasticity of bases, Ebase • Modulus of subgrade reaction, KSTAT 32

    33. Maintenance Works (1) 33

    34. Maintenance Works (2) 34

    35. Maintenance Works (3) 35

    36. HDM Series – Volume 4 36