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ROADS. Gianluca de feo Amedeo Russo. When we have to design a road or a highway, we have to consider many factors, like: - number and weight of trucks - established speed -maximum gradient. For the design the first step is:

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  1. ROADS Gianluca de feo Amedeo Russo

  2. When we have to design a road or a highway, we have to consider many factors, like:- number and weight of trucks- established speed-maximum gradient For the design the first step is: Establish the general route on a map, that shows the features and variations of the ground …

  3. The second step is:establish the grade-line and how much earthwork we have to move.This grade-line is adjusted to balance the earthwork with fill. At the end, set of plans are showing the established vertical and horizontal alignment..

  4. The last step before the costruction is: 1) Remove all vegetation from the roadway section 2) Drain the surface water

  5. We can costruct two types of pavements: FLEXIBLE: That has base and sub-base layers of natural aggregate materials and a surface of aggregate mixed with bituminous material RIGID: that has a surface of Portland material

  6. VIA SACRA LONGOBARDORUM

  7. La Via Sacra dei Longobardi The “Via Sacra dei Longobardi”, nowadays also cald “il Pellegrinaggio Garganico”, was used, in the Classic Age, as a connectiion way from Rome to the South Regions of Italy, especially to Puglia (our region).Thanks to the diffusion of S.Michele’s cult and to the birth of his pilgrimage, the way was called “Via Sacra dei Longobardi”. Along the street some churches,stops and guard sites (obligatory stops of the pilgrimage) were constructed. The way starts from the first of these sites,the “Madonna di Stignano Sanctuary”. Then the street rises to S.Marco in Lamis, a little city, and going on one’s way there’s “San Matteo Sanctuary”.And from this site we can reach the end of pilgrimage, the famous S.Michele’s Sanctuary. These three point ware the principally sites that marked the way at the begin. After, some Century later, were costructed another churches and stop sites, like the San Giovanni Rotondo’s church and the Casale di Sant’Egidio. These costruction were served to ameliorate the way of the pilgrims.

  8. Madonna di Stignano Sanctuary We don’t know the real origin of this church, maybe it was costructed in the Dark Age by some Brasilian monks.The present church is made up only by two cloisters and a puteal(1576)

  9. S. Matteo Sanctuary It is situated on a strategic site.It was constructed at the end of the 6th Century, in a particular point of the valley to control the pass of “Monte Celano”. Ludovico II, three Century later, restored and amplified the church. Today it has two particular elements: • A beautiful altar of the 5th Century. • A statue of S.Matteo’s, dated 2nd Century.

  10. S. Michele Sanctuary It is the most popular Sanctuary of the latin west, dedicated to S.Michele. It is situated on the top of the Gargano’s mount and it is costitued to a complex of some costruction, that were costructed in different ages, around the cave. In the 1000, an anonymous writer, wrote: “The Sanctuary knowed everywhere, not for its marbles, but for the miraculous events, that were happened into the cave”. It is rich of havenely virtues, because S.Michele costructed and consecrated it, to approached the Christian population with God. These miraculous events were: • The events of the bull • The events of the victory • The events of dedication • The 4th apparition In every of these times the angel Michele was appeared to the bishop, to gave notice of important events and to advised and to encouraged his devouts.. Some photos of S.Michele Sanctuary

  11. THE CAVE… THE ALTAR OF THE HOLY SACRAMENT THE SUPERIOR ATRIUM…

  12. Streets in the past The streets in the past were mainly in beat-earth. Or sometimes they were made of stone.They had some difficult and hard ways with holes and rises. They weren’t very common, infact sometimes we had to pass through forests andglades without any ways.

  13. They were used principally for the commercial exchanges , and this is why they connected only the business cities…