Best practices for statistics
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Best Practices for Statistics. Best Practices. Purpose of Statistics. Best Practice: Know what you already know, what you want to know and what you don’t know. Starting with Your Research Question.

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Best practice know what you already know what you want to know and what you don t know
Best Practice:Know what you already know, what you want to know and what you don’t know

Starting with your research question
Starting with Your Research Question

How do users differ when (searching, finding, selecting) (articles, books, Web sites)?

What are factors associated with ___________?

What are the effects of ___________On ____________?

Which is better at improving _________?

How are people (finding, selecting, using) _______?

Likert type scale
Likert-Type Scale?

Best practice have a comparison group
Best Practice:Have a Comparison Group

Kinds of comparison
Kinds of Comparison

Best practice use a valid measure
Best Practice: Use a Valid Measure

Validity of measures
Validity of Measures

Are you actually measuring what you are trying to measure?

Use a tool with established validity
Use a tool with established validity

User Engagement Scale (UES)

Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST)

Best practice have a data plan
Best Practice: Have a Data Plan

Best practices for statistics

Systematic (not random) deviation from the true value (

Data input
Data Input

Have a data entry plan

Train the inputters

Use data validation tricks


Best practice get to know your data
Best Practice:Get to know your data

Distribution or spread of qualitative data
Distribution or Spread of Qualitative Data

Exploratory data analysis1
Exploratory Data Analysis

  • John W. Tukey

  • Exploratory Data Analysis

  • Examining your data visually.

    • Stem & Leaf

    • Hinges

    • Box plots

    • Scatter plots, etc.

Stem and leaf

First digit(s)

Last digit

Spread of quantitative data
Spread of Quantitative Data

How variable is the data?

Presentation of spread
Presentation of Spread

  • Box plots

    • Median

    • Upper & lower quartiles

    • Outliers

Standard deviation
Standard Deviation

  • Measure of dispersion of data

  • Square root of the average variation from the mean

Demonstration of distributions
Demonstration of distributions

Distribution of the Population

The “Truth”

N is the # of samples

n is the number of items in each sample

Watch the cumulative mean & medians slowly merge to the population

Best practice if it doesn t fit change it
Best Practice:If it doesn’t fit, change it

Transformation of data

How to become normal
How to Become Normal

  • Express the result in the terms of the transformation

Best practice place your bets before you start
Best Practice: Place your bets before you start

Example hypothesis
Example Hypothesis

UNT Libraries provides access to…

*…of journal articles cited by UNT PACS faculty in journal articles published between 2008-2011.

Best practice choose the best method for your question and data
Best Practice:Choose the Best Method for your Question and Data

Best practice going beyond the p value
Best Practice: Going Beyond the p-value

And the p value says
And the p-value says…