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  1. World war ii erupts The Rise of Dictators

  2. European Dictators Adolf hitler Benito mussolini

  3. How did the aftermath of World War I contribute to political problems in Europe? • The war had left the European economy in ruins – farms, factories, roads destroyed • Many in Europe had suffered great personal financial losses – inflation wiped out savings • Germany had suffered more than anyone from Versailles – let to political opportunities (Hitler)

  4. Why were Italians unhappy with the Treaty of Versailles? • They had been on the winning side in the war – they hoped to be rewarded at Versailles with new territory • They were mostly ignored at Versailles

  5. Why did the Weimar Republic face unhappiness from within the German military? • Weimar Republic – name for new German democratic government following the war • Treaty of Versailles had called for great reduction in size and power of the military in Germany • Outraged members of the German military

  6. How does inflation cause economic problems? • Treaty of Versailles had forced Germany to give up much of its industrial regions • Also forced Germany to pay “reparations” to the Allies • This cause great inflation, or rising prices • Inflation causes money to lose value, causing prices to soar • As money loses its value, governments typically respond by printing more money • This financially destroyed many in Germany

  7. How did the problems facing Europe in the postwar years lead to the rise of totalitarian leaders? • They expressed people’s anger • Promised a return to greatness (Hitler) • People were willing to give up basic freedoms in return for hope of future glory

  8. Name three things Mussolini and Hitler had in common. • They were both outraged by the Treaty of Versailles • Dynamic speakers • Strong leaders • Both stressed nationalism • Both used political skills and violence when necessary to gain power • Both glorified by citizens • Both totalitarian dictators

  9. What is the myth of the Aryan master race? • Hitler’s idea that the Germanic people were superior • This was challenged by Jesse Owens’ performance at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Munich

  10. Why do you think there was not support for democratic governments in Italy and Germany? • People were looking for new leaders – felt the policies of the old leaders had failed them • They wanted problems solved – would sacrifice democratic principles • Many felt that democracy had failed them

  11. European Propaganda hitler mussolini

  12. What other countries, besides Italy and Germany, had powerful and nationalistic regimes prior to World War II? • Spain – General Francisco Franco • Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin • Japan

  13. Dictators Joseph stalin Francisco franco

  14. What was the major difference between the totalitarian regimes in the Soviet Union and those in Italy and Germany? • The Soviet Union had a Communist regime • Italy and Germany were fascist regimes • Fascism – system of government that stressed the importance of the state • “Anti-individualistic, the Fascist conception of life stresses the importance of the State and accepts the individual only in so far as his interests coincide with those of the State” • Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Gentile, The Doctrine of Fascism

  15. What events demonstrate the growing use of military force by totalitarian regimes in the 1930’s? • Japanese invasion of Manchuria • Military did so without authorization of govt. • Done purely to exploit Manchurian resources • Italian invasion of Ethiopia • Spanish Civil War • Two forces – Fascists and Nationalists • Fascists – backed by Italy and Germany • Nationalists – backed by U.S. and Soviet Union • Fascists win – Franco comes to power

  16. What is Manchuria? • Chinese province that was taken over by Japan in 1931

  17. Why didn’t the League of Nations take action when Japan took control of Manchuria and Italy invaded Ethiopia? • League of Nations had no military forces or power to force member nations to obey international law • This will prove to be the beginning of the end for the League of Nations

  18. What alarming actions did Adolf Hitler take in the mid-1930’s? • Rebuilt the German military • Sent troops into the Rhineland (demilitarized zone on German-French border), Austria, and the Sudetenland (province in Czechoslovakia that held many Germanic people) • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Premier Edouard Daladier met with Hitler before he annexed the Sudetenland • Chamberlain claimed “peace for our time” • Policy of appeasement

  19. Appeasement neville chamberlain Edouarddaladier

  20. How did Hitler justify rebuilding Germany’s military? • Claimed that he was helping stop the spread of Communism

  21. Why do you think the British and French were so eager to avoid war that they allowed Hitler to violate the Treaty of Versailles and international law? • Devastation of WW I was still on everyone’s mind • Determination to avoid another war • They thought each violation by Hitler would be his last one – they wanted to believe him

  22. How did Germany’s actions in 1939 trigger the start of World War II? • Captured the rest of Czechoslovakia • Made alliance with Italy • Signed Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact w/ Soviet Union • Within days of this agreement, Germany launched a massive invasion of Poland

  23. Which British leader publicly condemned Chamberlain’s policy of apeasement? • Winston Churchill – condemned Chamberlain’s appeasement as “cowardly”

  24. Do you think Stalin’s pact with Germany gave better security for the Soviet Union? Why? • Yes – gave Soviets security from attack by Germany, and gave them time to prepare for possible war • They did not know at that time if they could depend on France or Britain if Germany attacked • No – Germany had already proven it would break treaty agreements

  25. Where did German forces turn after overrunning Poland in 1939? • To Western Europe • April 1940 Hitler sends troops into Denmark and Norway – both countries fell with little resistance • Now could turn full attention towards France

  26. What took place during the sitzkrieg? • Sitzkrieg – “phony war” • Winter of 1939-40 – period of inaction • German military leaders developed plans to invade France through the Ardennes Forest – to the north of France’s main defenses

  27. What countries did Germany overrun between the fall of Poland and the Battle of Britain? • Denmark • Norway • the Netherlands • Belgium • France

  28. What might have happened in Western Europe if the Allies had attacked Hitler in 1939 or early 1940? • Might have been able to save some countries from Nazi control • Also might have lost even more troops and equipment • Might have caused Hitler to re-think his plans for a big war in Europe

  29. What countries had the Axis invaded by 1941? What three countries made up the Axis Powers? • Denmark • Norway • Belgium • the Netherlands • Czechoslovakia • Austria • Poland • France • Germany,Italy, Japan

  30. What developments increased tensions between the U.S. and Japan in East Asia? • Japan’s military alliance that it signed with Germany and Italy (U.S. firmly supported the British and French) • Japanese takeover of French Indochina (modern-day Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia)

  31. Should the U.S. have tried to reach a compromise with Japan? • No – Japan was on an aggressive course that would have collided with American interests no matter what • Yes – might have saved thousands of lives

  32. Why was a commitment to isolationism so widespread in the 1930’s? • Many Americans were afraid of being drawn into future wars after World War I • Most thought it was a “European conflict” and that we should stay out of it

  33. What foreign policy matter did FDR address while he was focusing on his New Deal programs? • The U.S. established diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union in 1933

  34. Why do you think the Neutrality Act prohibited the export of arms, ammunition, or any other tools of war to any country that was at war? • Neutrality Act – passed in 1935; meant to prevent the U.S. from being drawn into war • Might lead the country’s enemies to attack the U.S. • Might draw the U.S. into war • Aiding nations at war is a form of participation in the war

  35. How did FDR balance isolationism with the need to intervene in the war? • Used the Neutrality Act to hurt Italy (Ethiopia couldn’t afford weapons anyway) • Roosevelt himself did not take an isolationist stance; he really did not want to remain neutral

  36. What events of the mid-1930’s led to FDR’s Quarantine Speech? • Quarantine Speech – given by FDR in October 1937; he compared the spread of war to the spread of a contagious disease; said the U.S. should work with peace-loving countries to “quarantine” the aggressive nations and stop the spread of war • Italian invasion of Ethiopia • Spanish Civil War • Japanese invasion of China

  37. Why did FDR grow increasingly unwilling to allow America to remain isolationist? • He was deeply disturbed by the increasingly aggressive actions of totalitarian dictators

  38. What did the U.S. do to prepare for war in 1940 and 1941? • Traded surplus ships to Britain for military bases • Started to build new warships • Passed the Lend-Lease Act (1940)

  39. What was the Lend-Lease Act? • Lend-Lease Act (1940) – allowed the U.S. the ability to send weapons to Great Britain whether Britain could pay for them or not

  40. What were the causes and effects of the Japanese attack at Pearl Harbor? • Causes • Conflict over French Indochina • Japan joining Axis Powers • U.S. refusing to sell oil to Japan • Effects • Severe damage to U.S. Pacific fleet and aircraft • U.S. declaration of war, which changes everything

  41. Why was Pearl Harbor targeted by the Japanese? • It was home to the American Navy’s Pacific Fleet • It would be the base for any American offensive

  42. List the similarities and differences between the attacks at Pearl Harbor and the events of September 11, 2001. • Similarities • Both were surprise attacks • Both resulted in destruction and loss of life • Both resulted in American military involvement • Differences • Attack on Pearl Harbor was a military attack by a foreign government • Attacks on September 11 were carried out by terrorists using civilian aircraft on civilian and military targets

  43. How did the U.S. armed forces mobilize to fight World War II? • Increased military spending by the government • Military draft – 16 million Americans would join the armed forces; many volunteered • Women’s Army Corps – 150,000 women served – full-fledged members of the army; could serve overseas, but not in combat • New military bases

  44. How did the U.S. get the soldiers and sailors needed to fight in the war? • 1940 expanded the draft • Many volunteered • Some who could not qualify medically committed suicide

  45. How do you think increased military spending during 1940-41 helped end the Great Depression? • New jobs in the defense industry and in the military • New planes, tanks, ships, etc. had to be built; put millions of Americans to work

  46. Why did the military need so many new bases? • Millions of soldiers and sailors had to be trained and housed • Hundreds of new military bases were created – mainly in the South

  47. How did the military bases help transform the southern United States? • Rural areas in the South grew with the influx of young people • Economic development – many bases remained open after the war

  48. What role did American industry and science play in mobilizing to fight World War II? • Factories began to produce war supplies • Willow Run – mile-long structure created by Henry Ford • 42,000 workers • By end of war was producing 650 aircraft per month • Scientists worked to develop new weapons, including the atomic bomb

  49. Willow Run

  50. What was a liberty ship? • Quickly built cargo ships built in Henry Kaiser’s factories using assembly-line techniques • American cargo ships had taken huge hits from German u-boats in early stages of the war