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Royal Georgia. Beginnings of a Royal Colony. Georgia did very well as a royal colony. Georgia added a great deal to the British economy. They exported rice, indigo, deerskins, lumber, beef, and pork. Beginnings of a Royal Colony.

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Beginnings of a royal colony l.jpg
Beginnings of a Royal Colony

  • Georgia did very well as a royal colony.

  • Georgia added a great deal to the British economy.

  • They exported rice, indigo, deerskins, lumber, beef, and pork.


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Beginnings of a Royal Colony

  • Georgia officially became a royal colony when the Trustee period ended in 1752.

  • This meant that the Crown of England oversaw the control of Georgia.

  • Parliament had to pass a charter in order for Georgia to become an official royal colony.


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Beginnings of a Royal Colony

  • This process began in 1752, after Parliament dismissed the trustees.

  • It took two years for the charter to go through Parliament.

  • Georgia did not get its first official governor until 1754.


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Royal Governors

  • John Reynolds was Georgia’s first royal governor.

  • He governed from 1754 to 1757.

  • The British Parliament recalled Reynolds in 1757 and said that he was ineffective.

  • John Reynolds was a former naval officer and did not have the political skills to govern well.


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Royal Governors

  • He angered his cabinet and divided the residents of Georgia.

  • He was not good at interacting with Native Americans.

  • This skill was especially important since his tenure began around the beginning of the French and Indian War.

  • The French and Indian War was the North American phase of a war between France and Britain to control land in the colonies, lasting from 1754 to 1763.


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Royal Governors

  • During this time, many Native American attacks plagued Georgia settlers.

  • Many Georgians were unhappy with John Reynolds.

  • They wrote to England and asked for his removal.

  • Lord Halifax responded, and appointed a new royal governor.


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Royal Governors

  • Henry Ellis governed Georgia from 1757 to 1760.

  • He built a solid foundation for Georgia. He had skills that Reynolds did not.

  • He set up a budget and regulated trade with the Native Americans.

  • He also built forts and tried to abolish slavery.


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Royal Governors

  • Ellis’s most important skill involved his communication with Native American tribes.

  • He held on to the friendship of the Creek Nation and declared Georgia’s authority to control the Indian trade.

  • By 1760, an ailing Ellis left Georgia and the governor position.


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Royal Governors

  • The next royal governor was James Wright.

  • James Wright was very popular and held the governor’s position for sixteen years, from 1760 to 1776.

  • Wright came to Georgia with his experience as attorney general of South Carolina.

  • That coupled with the benefit of having seasoned Georgians who served in the assembly, helped Wright develop Georgia during his term.


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Royal Governors

  • The peace settlement of the French and Indian War made much more land available for settlement.

  • This increased the size of Georgia.

  • Georgia now had land all the way south to the St. Mary’s River, and all the way west to the Mississippi River.


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Land Grants

  • Settlers who came to the colony by way of the Trust’s charity, were limited to fifty-acre land grants.

  • Those who paid their way could have up to 500 acres of land.

  • Those who paid their way were required to have at least one servant or family member for every fifty acres of their grant.


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Land Grants

  • This rule helped ensure that enough men were available to defend the colony.

  • At that time, only men could own land, but settlers protested.

  • The men wanted their wives and daughters to be able to inherit their land.


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Life in Colonial Georgia

  • Colonial Georgia was a land of farmers.

  • Most women worked in the home.

  • They prepared food, cared for clothing, and planted and harvested.

  • Children also contributed to the growth of the colony.


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Life in Colonial Georgia

  • The trustees hoped families would provide both labor and stability for the new colony.

  • People often lived in homes made from tabby.

  • Tabby is a mixture of mortar and lime that was common as a building material through the colonial period in the coastal Southeast.


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Life in Colonial Georgia

  • English, Salzburgers, Germans, Scots, Irish, and Sephardic Jews were all early settlers of Georgia.

  • When the slavery ban was lifted in 1750, life changed in the colony.

  • Many plantation owners from South Carolina moved to Georgia to expand their slave-based economy.


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Life in Colonial Georgia

  • As a result, tens of thousands of Africans were enslaved and brought to Georgia to work on rice plantations.

  • The beginning of African slavery changed the economy of the region.

  • Plantation owners established socioeconomic structures and relationships that dominated Georgia’s economy and government.


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Slavery

  • During the beginning of Trustee period, Georgia’s state law prohibited slavery.

  • However, wealthy colonists who could afford to buy enslaved people, demanded to be allowed to bring them to Georgia.

  • In 1750, the trustees who governed Georgia at the time lifted the ban on slavery.


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Slavery

  • Between 1750 and 1775, the number of Africans living in slavery increased from 500 to 18,000.

  • These Africans had no rights.

  • They were not allowed to marry, or live where they wanted, or even learn to read.


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Slavery

  • They had to work and live in the harsh conditions of the Georgia rice fields.

  • Rebellion against slave owners was almost impossible.

  • Punishment included beatings, whippings, separation from friends or family, and even death.


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End of the Royal Colony

  • In 1776, at the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, Georgia declared its independence from the British Crown along with other British colonies.


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Summary

  • Explain the evolution of the Georgia colony from the end of the trustee colony to the start of the Revolutionary War.


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