IS3120 Network Communications Infrastructure
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IS3120 Network Communications Infrastructure Unit 4 IP Addressing Schema Designs for a Layer 2/Layer 3 IP Network Infrastructure. Learning Objective. Translate IPv4 and IPv6 IP addressing schemas and perform logical IP addressing schema designs. Key Concepts. IPv4 addressing structure

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Is3120 network communications infrastructure unit 4

IS3120 Network Communications Infrastructure

Unit 4

IP Addressing Schema Designs for a Layer 2/Layer 3 IP Network Infrastructure

Learning objective
Learning Objective

  • Translate IPv4 and IPv6 IP addressing schemas and perform logical IP addressing schema designs.

Key concepts
Key Concepts

  • IPv4 addressing structure

  • IPv6 addressing structure

  • Alignment of subnet mask addressing to appropriate number of IP subnetworks

  • IP addressing schema design using IPv4 for Layer 2 and Layer 3 networking

  • IP addressing schema design using IPv6 for Layer 2 and Layer 3 networking

Ipv4 address structure
IPv4: Address Structure

  • 32-bit addresses (4 bytes)

  • Usually displayed in dot notation

    • 4 separate 8-bit numbers (octets)

    • Octets separated by periods

    • Octet value is between 0 and 255

    • Example:

  • IPv4 networks can be classful or classless

Ipv4 classful network architecture
IPv4: Classful Network Architecture

  • IP addresses originally organized into five classes: A, B, C, D, and E

  • A, B, and C used for networks

  • Each class restricted to a particular IP address range

  • Range based on number of nodes needed

  • Maximum number of 4,294,967,296 addresses (232)

Ipv4 classful network breakdown
IPv4: Classful Network Breakdown

Ipv4 networks versus nodes
IPv4: Networks versus Nodes

Ipv4 cidr

  • Replacement for classful network architecture (1993)

  • Temporary solution for IP address shortage

  • Networks are split into groups of IP addresses called CIDR blocks

Ipv4 dot notation to binary
IPv4: Dot Notation to Binary

Ipv4 private addresses
IPv4: Private Addresses

  • Not routable through public routers

  • Network Address Translation (NAT) maps internal addresses to public routable addresses

Ipv6 address structure
IPv6: Address Structure

  • 128 bit addresses

    • First 64 bits identify network

    • Last 64 bits identify host (based on MAC address)

  • Maximum number of 2128addresses (> 340 undecillion)

    1 undecillion = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000

Ipv6 address notation
IPv6: Address Notation

  • 8 groups of 4 hexadecimal numbers

Ipv6 address compression
IPv6: Address Compression

  • Drop leading 0s in each group




  • Replace the first group of 0s with ::




  • Only one set of :: can exist in an address

Ipv6 network prefix
IPv6: Network Prefix

  • Address block 2001:db8::/32

    • Range: 2001:db8:: to 2001:0db8:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff

  • Any IP address sharing the same initial 32 bits is in the same Internet network, leaving 32 bits for further sub-netting.

Ipv6 address types
IPv6: Address Types

Ipv6 unicast addressing
IPv6: Unicast Addressing

  • Single device

  • Similar to IPv4 CIDR

  • Global or local (public or private)

  • Can contain embedded IPv4 addresses

    • Network prefix set to 0

    • ::FFFF:

Ipv6 global versus local unicast
IPv6: Global versus Local Unicast

  • Interfaces in IPv6 have at least two addresses:

Ipv6 unicast host identifier
IPv6: Unicast Host Identifier

  • Calculated from interface’s 48-bit MAC address

  • MAC is assigned by manufacturer:


    00011100 01101111 01100101 00110101 10000101 01101101

  • EUI-64 inserts ff:fe as the middle 16 bits:


    00011100 01101111 01100101 1111111111111110 00110101 10000101 01101101

  • If the host address is globally unique the 7th bit is inverted:


    00011110 01101111 01100101 11111111 11111110 00110101 10000101 01101101

  • Any IP address sharing the same initial 32 bits is in the same Internet network, leaving 32 bits for sub-netting.

Ipv6 multicast assignment
IPv6: Multicast Assignment

  • Interfaces in IPv6 have at least two multicast assignments:

    • Solicited-node

      • Used to validate host identifier uniqueness

      • Announces interface to neighbors

    • All-hosts

      • Communicate with all nodes within a LAN segment

Ipv6 multicast addressing1
IPv6: Multicast Addressing


  • Solicited-node addresses

    • Translated from a node’s unicast address

Ipv6 reserved multicast addresses
IPv6: Reserved Multicast Addresses

  • ff02::1 is all nodes

  • ff02::2 is all routers

  • ff02::101 is all Network Time Protocol (NTP) servers

  • ff02::fb is all multicast DNS servers

Ipv6 anycast addressing
IPv6: Anycast Addressing

  • New to IPv6, no IPv4 equivalent

  • Can be translated from unicast address

    • Change node identifier bits to all 0s or all 1s except the last 7 bits

  • Associated with a unique identifier

  • Each LAN segment can have 126 unique anycast IDs

Ipv6 anycast addressing1
IPv6: Anycast Addressing

  • Node address of all 0s

    • Subnet-router communications

    • Takes the place of a default gateway in IPv4

  • Node address of 1s except the last 7 bits

    • 0x00 (0000000) through 0x7d (0111101) may be designated Anycast identifiers

    • 0x7e (0111110) and 0x7f (0111111) are reserved

Elements of an ipv4 address schema
Elements of an IPv4 Address Schema

  • Network ID (aka network address)

    • First address of the block

  • Subnet mask

  • Broadcast address

    • Last address of the block

  • If multiple subnets

    • Each subnet has its own network ID and broadcast address

Ipv4 schema determine network
IPv4Schema: Determine Network

  • How many hosts (nodes)?

    • Workstations

    • Servers

    • Other

  • Number of nodes determines network class

Ipv4 schema subnets
IPv4Schema: Subnets

  • How many subnets are needed?

    • Security

    • Services

    • Organizational structure

  • How many hosts for eachsubnet?

  • # of hosts per subnetdetermines subnet mask

Elements of an ipv6 addressing schema
Elements of an IPv6 Addressing Schema

  • Internetworking is generally automatic

    • Assignment of unicast host identifiers

    • Network and gateway mapping through Neighbor Discovery

  • Link-local addressing is manual or automatic

  • Configurable scopes

    • Admin Level

    • Site Level (deprecated)

    • Organization Level

Types of ipv6 addresses
Types of IPv6 Addresses

  • Enclose IPv6 addresses in brackets [] to specify a particular port

  • Example:telnet [201:0db8::53:0:4]:23 for port 23

Ipv6 schema subnets support business needs
IPv6 Schema: Subnets Support Business Needs

  • Segmentation across routers to limit network congestion on critical subnets

  • Regulatory mandates requiring transport isolation of certain data categories

  • Logical segmentation of neighbor nodes based on disparate facility locations

  • Isolation for each client or function

Ipv6 schema subnetting
IPv6 Schema: Subnetting

  • Classless

  • Notation is similar to IPv4 CIDR addressing notation.

  • Example: 2001:0db8:0:0:0:53:0:4/16

    • Defines 2001 (the first 16 bits) as the network address

    • Subnets of 2112 node addresses each

  • Further subnetting is possible (hierarchical)

Ipv6 subnet segmentation
IPv6: Subnet Segmentation

  • Each Provider assigned a /32 network (65536 /48 Subscriber subnets)

  • A Subscriber assigned a /48 subnet (65536 /64 LAN segments)

  • A single /64 LAN segment is 264 nodes

  • Further segmentation administratively assigned through Admin-, Site-, and Organizational-scope specification

Role of ip addressing in network routing
Role of IP Addressing in Network Routing

  • IP addressing is based on hosts and networks

  • End hosts are assigned IP addresses

  • Subnets of IP host addresses are divided and grouped together

  • IP address are used to route packets and are essential to getting information to the proper destination

Ipv4 and ipv6 in context
IPv4 and IPv6 in Context

  • Most devices still using IPv4

  • Compatibility with IPv6 networking is mainly a software or firmware issue

  • American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) suggests that all Internet servers be prepared to serve IPv6-only clients by January 2012


  • The number of network-enabled devices has grown beyond IPv4’s address capacity.

  • IPv6 provides a more globally equitable distribution of network addresses than the legacy IPv4 system which provides more addresses to early-adopters (US universities) than to many governments elsewhere in the world.


  • In this presentation, the following were covered:

    • IPv4 addressing

    • Classful and classless networking (IPv4)

    • IPv6 addressing

    • IPv4 address schema design

    • IPv6 address schema design