Water resources
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Water Resources. Access to Water. Health Issues Lack of water = leading cause of illness Economic Issues Decrease poverty, production of food & energy Women/Children Issues In developing countries, responsible. Access to Water. Security Issues Increased national/international tensions

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Access to water
Access to Water

Health Issues

  • Lack of water = leading cause of illness

    Economic Issues

  • Decrease poverty, production of food & energy

    Women/Children Issues

  • In developing countries, responsible

Access to water1
Access to Water

Security Issues

  • Increased national/international tensions

    Environmental Issues

  • Excessive withdrawal

  • 0.024% readily available

Access to water2
Access to Water

Hydrologic cycle collects, purifies, recycles water

  • Humans disrupt this cycle

    Globally there is plenty of water; it’s not distributed justly


Zone of saturation

  • Subsurface spaces completely filled w/ H2O

    Water Table – boundary between zones of aeration and saturation


  • Deeper, porous layers through which H2O flows

    Reliable Surface runoff – reliable source of H2O; about 1/3 of total runoff

Home industry agriculture
Home, Industry, Agriculture

Consumptive Use

  • Water is removed from a source and not returned

    Non-consumptive Use

  • Water is not removed or temporarily removed

Depletion and diversion
Depletion and Diversion

Groundwater depletion

  • Sinkholes happen

    Dikes, levees and dams divert and deplete

  • Regional conflicts

  • Ecosystem damage

  • Economic impact

  • Three Gorges Dam = world’s largest


Removal of salt from seawater

  • One method – hastens evaporation (distillation)

  • Method 2 – forcing H2O through a membrane filter


Efficient technologies ( lining irrigation canals)

Low-pressure spray irrigation (downward spray)

Match crop to climate

Selective breeding and genetic modification

Residential municipal industrial
Residential, Municipal, Industrial

Install low-flow facets, showerheads, appliances

Automatic dishwashers v. by hand

Watering at night

Match lawn plants with local precipitation (xeriscaping)

Residential municipal industrial1
Residential, Municipal, Industrial

Industry: use processes requiring less water

Maintain water infrastructure

Recycling wastewater

Capture runoff and pump into aquifers

Economic solutions
Economic Solutions

Market-based strategies

  • Ending gov’t subsidies for inefficient practices

  • Let price reflect true cost of extraction

    Privatization = increased efficiency?

    Decentralize control

    Many believe marketing strategies alone would make water available only to the rich