Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa After WWII, African leaders threw off colonial rule and created independent countries.
Negritude Movement A movement for African independence that started before World War II. French–speaking Africans and West Indians celebrated their heritage of traditional African culture and values.
Ghana [former British colony]1957 • Revolutionary Leader: Kwame Nkrumah • Nkrumah’s Tactics: • Organized boycotts and strikes • Reforms: • Expensive Health, education, & welfare programs • Dreamed of “United States of Africa” • Problems he faced: • Overthrown by a coup in 1966 • Political & Economic Instability since then
Kenya [Former British Colony] 1963 • Tactics used by the Mau-Mau: • Frighten whites & forced them out of the northern highlands • Used guerilla tactics • Kenyatta’s Reforms: • Tried to unite ethnic & language groups • Develop businesses • Resulting Problems: • Civil Unrest under next leader, Daniel arap Moi
Zaire, 1960 (Democratic Republic of Congo) • Former colony of Belgium • Gained independence by: Granted suddenly by Belgium • Mobutu’s rule was: Brutal & Corrupt. • Resulting problems: • Depleted resources • Extreme Poverty • Social Unrest; He was overthrown by Laurent Kabila in 1997. Kabila was assassinated in 2001. His son, Joseph Kabila, took power.
Algeria [Former colony of France] 1962 • Gained independence by: • FLN (Algerian Nat’l Liberation Front) fought against France for their independence. • Ben Bella’s Program • Attempted to form a socialist state but was overthrown by a coup in 1965 • Problems: • Unsuccessful attempts to industrialize • High Unemployment • Rise of Fundamentalist Islamists • Continuing civil unrest
Current President of AlgeriaAbdelaziz Bouteflika “Elected” in 2004 after all other candidates dropped out.
Angola [Former colony of Portugal] 1975 • Gained independence by: Fought against Portugal • Causes of their civil war: • Communist rebel group MPLA declared itself the rightful ruler of independent Angola. They were supported by Cuba & USSR • UNITA rebel group fought against MPLA with support from the USA • Continuing problems: • Civil war continued until 2002.
José Eduardo dos Santos • President of Angola since l979. • His son is Vice President.