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DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT. TRAINING MODULE CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN (CPTED): Module One: Background note: all material copyright 2006 Symplan/ Liveable Cities: do not reproduce without permission. SOURCES OF INFORMATION.

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  1. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT TRAINING MODULE CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN (CPTED): Module One: Background note: all material copyright 2006 Symplan/ Liveable Cities: do not reproduce without permission

  2. SOURCES OF INFORMATION • Desktop review of best practice. • Interviews with principals (2 secondary, 1 primary). • Tours of schools with crime problems (2 secondary, 1 primary). • Interview with Stephen Nangle, Co-ordinator Quality and Standards, DEECD

  3. WHAT IS CRIME? Dealing with 2 types of crime • Actual • Against Persons (assaults, harassment) • Against Property (Vandalism, Theft) • Perceived • Fear of crime and violence We should focus on the what, who, where, when and how of crime

  4. WHAT IS PERCEIVED CRIME? • “Wide range of emotional and practical responses to crime and disorder made by individuals and communities” • “Impact on people’s concerns about crime on everyday social life” Rachel Pain “Gender, Race, Age and Fear in the City”, Urban Studies, Vol. 38, Nos 5-6, 899-913; 2001

  5. IMPACT OF PERCEIVED CRIME • Avoidance of places and spaces. This makes them more susceptible to crimes due to abandonment. • May lead to preventative measures such as barbed wire or surveillance cameras which heightens fear of crime. • Has psychological and emotional effects on individuals, particularly children.

  6. DEFINITION OF VIOLENCE (WHO, from “World Report on Violence and Health” 2002) “The intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation.”

  7. TYPES OF ACTUAL CRIME • Incivilities or minor crimes: • vandalism and property damage • graffiti • harassment, etc. • Major property crimes • break-ins • theft • Personal or violent crimes • Robbery • assault, sexual assault • homicide

  8. WHO ARE OFFENDERS? • Parents • Students and ex-students • ‘Strangers’ • Other staff • Offenders often don’t look like bad guys!

  9. WHO AND WHAT IS AFFECTED? • Against the person: • Staff • Students • Parents • Other users of schools • Against property: • School buildings • School property • School grounds

  10. WHEN AND HOW? • When: • during school hours • After hours • How: • Could be single or multiple offender

  11. IMPACT OF CRIME • Human cost • Fear and Intimidation • Stress • Bad reputation for school • Financial cost • Replacement of windows / infrastructure • Work Cover claims and premiums • Possible liability • Environmental cost • Poor image

  12. HOW ARE CRIME AND VIOLENCE ADDRESSED? (1) • Respond through treatment: • Punishment of perpetrator • Counseling of victim • Property Maintenance: • Repair/replacement of stolen or damaged property. • Removal of graffiti • Deal with specific risk factors to prevent recurrence • Redesign • Education

  13. HOW ARE CRIME AND VIOLENCE ADDRESSED? (2) • Prevention: Address crimes at their source before they occur through: • CPTED/ Safer design (our focus) • Monitoring and addressing of risk factors (tensions between students, violence in homes) • Education (e.g. bullying, racism, homophobia, code of conduct)

  14. CRIME PREVENTION • The line between victims and offenders is sometimes hazy (eg., fight between students on school grounds) • Crimes can often be de-escalated or avoided • Prevention can’t stop ALL crimes; at best, minimize opportunities for successful damage and maximize opportunities for successful evasion or defence

  15. THEORY OF CRIME PREVENTION 2 categories of crime prevention: • Social prevention: • Understand social reason why crime is occurring – deal with root causes • Opportunity reduction: • Prevent it happening by designing it out • Prevent it happening at hot spots through increased police presence, surveillance Usually used in combination

  16. CRIME IN SCHOOLS STATISTICS • Information gathered from: • Emergency management section of DEECD • Interviews with school principals

  17. Information from DEECD Nature and extent of crimes in schools (in order of severity): • 1. Vandalism - Intentional malicious damage of school property • Graffiti • Broken windows • Donuts in car parks and ovals • Broken/damaged fences • Abuse of motor vehicles • Motor bikes racing in circuits on school property • 2. Break ins • Theft of computer equipment

  18. Information from DEECD cont… • 3. Trespass – presence of people on school with intent to commit crimes • presence of people who have no legitimate reason to be on school’s property as opposed to people passing through, walking dogs • tends to be young adults • results in spontaneous criminal acts when people view computer and other electrical equipment • of greatest concern in primary schools • 4. Arson • small acts of arson cause major damage

  19. Information from school principals • Questions asked of principals: • What sorts of crimes are you having to address? • Do the crimes tend to occur from within the school community or are they committed by outsiders? • Is there a pattern to them? • Why do you think these crimes are happening? • Do you have any suggestions as to how to address these crimes?

  20. 1. TYPES OF CRIMES • Substance abuse: • Smoking • Drugs • Break ins and thefts • Computers, electrical equipment, DVD, bikes • Canteen food • Vandalism: • Broken windows • Graffiti • Broken playground equipment • Burn outs • Assaults: • By a parent against staff • Against students owing to a vendetta

  21. 2. WHO COMMITS THE CRIMES? • Ex students who have a vendetta. • Both students (current and ex) and the outside community.

  22. 3. PATTERNS OF CRIME • Weekends. • School holidays. • Usually in the hot weather when the kids can’t sleep. • Vandalism occurs where people can’t see it happening. • Windows that face the car park are broken. • Portables are hit a lot.

  23. 4. WHY DOES CRIME OCCUR? • Schools are often easy to get into. • Schools are used as thoroughfares. • Schools have up to date equipment. • Often multiple entry points to schools. • Not enough lighting or security cameras. • Often schools back onto houses.

  24. 5. COMMENTS • We don’t want to create prisons as this would send the wrong message. • Schools must remain a community resource. • Why are our children being so destructive? • Schools aren’t encouraging to children, they are not attractive or exciting. • The kids come quite well equipped so much of the crime is not opportunistic.

  25. 5. COMMENTS (CTD) • The school environment is sending the message that society doesn’t value them. • Children do not feel challenged by an unattractive environment. • Schools don’t feel supported by the police. • We would hate fences as it would feel like a jail and the kids would cut the fences anyway.

  26. 5. COMMENTS (CTD) • If you can keep it looking good it changes the way kids feel about the place and tells them that you care. • The more you have people using the place for the right purpose, the better. • The kids love the cameras, now, as they make them feel safer.

  27. 6. SUGGESTIONS • Windows: • Plastic instead of glass. • Install grills or break resistant film on windows. • Tint the glass as crime is opportunistic. • Bolt windows down. • Screen windows with shutters, curtains. • Place windows high up/use small windows.

  28. 6. SUGGESTIONS • Surveillance: • Cameras. • Sensor lights. • Alarms. • Remove alcoves, nooks and crannies. • Provide for security during design of building.

  29. 6. SUGGESTIONS CTD • Maintenance: • Remove graffiti and replace windows quickly. • Remove missiles (rocks) • Repaint trouble spots in colours. • Uses: • Have a mix of uses over the weekend.

  30. 6. SUGGESTIONS CTD • General design: • Provide for bike racks. • Place locker rooms outside the classrooms. • Make sure there are enough locker rooms and that they are big enough. • Avoid stairs and internal corridors as they are where bullying takes place.

  31. 6. SUGGESTIONS CTD • Perimeter treatment: • Block off paths with gates • Have as few entrances as possible. • Allow people to move through but keep them at a distance from the school buildings. • Signage: • Prohibiting signage doesn’t work.

  32. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT TRAINING MODULE CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN Module Two - CPTED: Safer Design note: all material copyright 2006 Symplan/ Liveable Cities: do not reproduce without permission

  33. What we cover • Principles of safer design • Elements of safer school design • The process of creating safer and more inclusive schools (photo: Dutch ‘window school’)

  34. What we cover (cont…) • Will cover: • Both exterior and interior of school property • Both directly controlled by Planning Act and ‘suggestions’ • Both design and social issues • Primary and Secondary schools

  35. 5 Principles for Safer Design (DSE guidelines) • Visibility and Natural surveillance • Good connections and access • Maximizing activity in public space • Clearly defined public/private ownership • Management of public space for attractiveness, legibility, and use, including evaluation

  36. 1. Visibility and Natural Surveillance • Common crime element: assumption by the offender that they won’t be seen or reported • Crimes often occur off main pathways in low visibility areas

  37. Who provides surveillance? • Formal surveillance from police (and private security) • Far more important is ‘informal surveillance’ from users and neighbours (students, teachers, admin staff, people living in community, nearby stores, passers-by)… ‘eyes on the street’

  38. Eyes on the school: good

  39. Eyes on the School: Not so good

  40. Windows are a great form of natural surveillance (and light!)

  41. Windows: problematic

  42. Provide light for areas intended to be used after dark (secure lights)

  43. Don’t light areas not intended to be used after dark!

  44. CCTV – a valuable tool

  45. 2. Safe Movement, Good Connection and Access: Why? • Important that everyone (including people with temporary or permanent mobility disabilities) be able to know their way around

  46. Connection and access: good

  47. Connections and Access: not so good

  48. Front entrance: not so good

  49. 3. Maximizing Activity: Why? • As previously stated, offenders like places they know aren’t being used • Maximizing activity increases informal surveillance, reduces hours public spaces are spent ‘empty’ and increases sense of ownership from community

  50. Maximizing activities: good (photos:schoolyards.org)

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