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Exploring School Resilience to Violence in Mexico and Colombia An analysis using data from ICCS 2009. Andr és Sandoval-Hernández Parisa Aghakasiri 5th IEA International Research Conference 26–28 June 2013, Singapore. Introduction.

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slide1

Exploring School Resilience to Violence in Mexico and ColombiaAn analysis using data from ICCS 2009

AndrésSandoval-Hernández

ParisaAghakasiri

5th IEA International Research Conference

26–28 June 2013, Singapore

introduction
Introduction
  • Violence is among the most persistent problems across Latin American societies
    • Mexico and Colombia 1st and 3rd place in homicides with firearm (UNODC 2005)
    • One third of students experienced physical aggression in school (Schultz et al. 2011)
  • Exposure to violence hinders the development of citizenship competencies and attitudes, and is strongly associated to violent behavior (Reimers 2007, Flannery, et al. 2007)
  • Is itpossible to prevent violent behavior among adolescents who are surrounded by violence? Can schools play a role in reducing the risk of violence?
resiliency against violence
Resiliency against violence
  • Resiliency against violence is a useful concept for exploring these questions
  • Resiliency is defined as
    • An occurrence of rebounding or springing back
    • Succeeding against the odds
  • Resiliency against violence can be defined as not presenting violent behaviordespite being surrounded bya violent environment.
objectives
Objectives
  • To identify school factors associated to the likelihood of resilience against violence:
    • First
      • To estimate the proportion of schools that are in a high-risk of experiencing violence;
      • Among such schools, the proportion that manage to remain resilient to violence
    • Second
      • To identify and compare the school factors more consistently associated with school resiliency against violence in Mexico and Colombia
methods
Methods

Data is from the IEA’s International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS 2009)

  • We isolate a cohort of high-risk schools
  • We estimated the proportion of these schools that are resilient to violence
  • We use cluster robust probit regression models to predict the likelihood of a school in high-risk to remain resilient to violence
methods1
Methods
  • We isolate a cohort of high-risk schools
  • A school is in high risk of violence if it scores higher than the national average in the scale “principal's perceptions of social tension in the community”
  • The issues of social tension: Immigration; Poor-quality housing; Unemployment; Religious intolerance; Ethnic conflicts; Extensive poverty; Organized crime; Youth gangs; Petty crime; Sexual harassment; Drug abuse; Alcohol abuse
methods2
Methods
  • We estimated the proportion of these schools that are resilient to violence (high-risk + low incidence of violence)
  • A school has low incidence of violence if it scores lower than the national average in the scale “principals' perceptions of social problems at school”
  • Indicators of social problems at school: Vandalism; Truancy; Racism; Religious intolerance; Bullying;Violence; Sexual harassment;Drug abuse;Alcohol abuse
methods3
Methods
  • We use cluster robust probit regression models to predict the likelihood of a school in high-risk to remain resilient to violence
  • Dependent variable: Resilient School (dichotomous)
  • Independet variables:
    • student influence on decisions about school
    • parents' participation in the school life
    • student opportunities to participate in ` community activities
    • teacher participation in school governance
    • studentbehavioratschool
  • Controlvariables:
    • availability of resources in local community
    • School SES
  • Taking part school parent association; Voting in school council elections; Supporting school projects; Attending school parent meetings; Attending parent-teacher meetings
  • Teaching/learning materials; The timetable; Classroom rules; School rules; Extra-curricular activities
  • Related to the environment; Human rights projects; underprivileged people or groups; Cultural activities; Intercultural initiatives; Campaigns to raise people’s awareness; Activities for the local community.
  • Make contribution to solving problems; suggestions for school governance; contribute to establishing priorities; support good discipline; resolve conflicts; take part in school development activities; encourage students’ participation.
  • Are well behaved on entering and leaving the school premises; adhere to school rules; show care for school facilities and equipment; are well behaved during breaks.

Amenable to schools’ actions

  • Public library; Cinema; Theatre or Concert Hall;
  • Language school; Museum or Art Gallery; Public garden
  • parents’ highest occupational status; highest parental educational level; and number of books at home.

Principals’ perceptions

results
Results

85% of the schools in Colombia and 78% in Mexico are considered to be at a high risk of experiencing violence

In Colombia 37% of those schools remain resilient to violence, while in Mexico this proportion is 32%

Percent of schools at risk of violence and, from those, percent of resilient schools

results1
Results

All predictors are significant and in almost all cases the relationship is positive

The direction of the associations is not always consistent

discussion
Discussion
  • This study adds to the body of research on school resiliency against violence in the following ways:
    • Contributes to fill a gap in the literature
    • Provides insight into the role that education can play
    • Points out resiliency-building activities that are amenable to schools (i.e. teachers’ participation in school governance and parent’s participation in schools, resources in the community)
    • Contributes to the research on school effectiveness and improvement
limitations
Limitations
  • These analyses presented are not final
    • It is possible that better indices can be created specifically for Colombia and Mexico
    • Further analyses with single items could shed more light into possible mechanisms
    • Other kind of models – e.g. SEM
    • Complement results with qualitative approach
  • The nature of the data does not allow a causal interpretation of the observed patterns
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model
Model

Probitregression models were used to estimate the probability of a school in high-risk to remain resilient to violence

The purpose of the model is to estimate the probability that an observation will fall into one of the categories

In the probit model, the inverse standard normal distribution of the probability is modeled as a linear combination of the predictors

The software used was MPlus6.8

probit regression model
probit regression model

P (u = 1 | x) = F (a + b*x)

= F (-t + b*x)

Where:

u = School resilient to violence

x = set of school characteristics

F = the standard normal distribution function

a = the probit regression intercept

b = the probit regression slope

t = the probit threshold, where t = -a

P (u = 0 | x) = 1 – P (u = 1 | x)