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Special Education Directors’ Conference July 31, 2008 Peoria Illinois. Pieces of the Puzzle. Dr. Stacey Jones Bock, Associate Professor Illinois State University Kathy Gould Director, Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project. Best Practices/Evidence Based Practices

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slide1

Special Education Directors’ Conference

July 31, 2008

Peoria Illinois

Pieces of the Puzzle

Dr. Stacey Jones Bock, Associate Professor

Illinois State University

Kathy Gould

Director, Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

slide2

Best Practices/Evidence Based Practices

Ten Guiding Principles for Students with ASD

Ten Considerations for Asperger Syndrome

best practices
Best Practices

To date, there is no one intervention that is effective with all children with ASD

best practices common elements
Best Practices: Common Elements

Core Skills

Highly supportive teaching environments

Predictability and routine

Functional approach to problem behaviors

Transition

Family involvement

best practices5
Best Practices

Strong programs address a variety of domains

Behavior

Communication

Socialization

Academics

types of interventions
Types of Interventions

Interpersonal Relationship Interventions

Skill-Based Interventions and Treatments

Cognitive Interventions

Physiological/Biological/Neurological Interventions and Treatments

Other Interventions, Treatments, and Related Agents

Richard L. Simpson: Evidence-based practices and students with autism spectrum

disorders Focus on Autism and other Developmental Disorders 9/22/05 20 3

evidence based practices
Evidence-based Practices

Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA)

Discrete Trial Instruction (DTI)

Pivotal Response Training (PRT)

Learning Experiences: An Alternative Program for Preschoolers and parents (LEAP)

promising practices
Play therapy

Assistive Technology

AAC

Incidental Teaching

JARS

PECS

TEACCH

CBM

Social-decision Making

Social Stories

Pharmacology

Sensory Integration

Promising Practices
practices with limited support
Gentle Teaching

Option Method (Son-Rise Program)

Floor Time

Animal Therapy

Relationship Development Intervention (RDI)

Fast ForWard

Van Dijk Curricular Approach

Cartooning

Cognitive Scripts

Power Cards

Auditory Integration Training (AIT)

Megavitamin Therapy

Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome (SSS): Irlen Lenses

Gluten-Casein Intolerance

Practices with Limited Support
national standards project
NATIONAL STANDARDS PROJECT

National Panel conducting a comprehensive review of outcome literature to select methods and practices identified as effective

Produce a set of standards for effective, research-validated education and behavioral intervention for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

After completing its scientific validation process and establishing ratified national standards, standards will be distributed in a technical manual through broad web-based distribution

To request a copy of the soon to be published report contact www.nationalautismcenter.org

slide11

Ten Guiding Principles in Programming

for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Dr. Stacey Bock

Autism Spectrum Institute

Illinois State University

slide12

1

An effective means of communication

To be “communication”, any system must be:

PORTABLE: whatever the system is,

it travels with the child - NEVER used

as a reward system.

UNIVERSAL: able to be understood

and used by most people the student

might encounter.

slide13
Each student must be evaluated and observed extensively to determine the best possible match of communication systems.

A mismatch will lead to frustration

and anger, and ultimately, a lack of

ability for the student to make himself

understood.

use visual strategies
Use visual strategies

2

Visual strategies are useful for many people with ASD- not all, but many.

Providing visual information at all

times may be very useful for people

with autism, and can enable independent

functioning.

use visual cues to reinforce any information you need to convey
Use visual cues to reinforce any information you need to convey.

Pictures

Symbols

Drawings

Words

Sign-language

Gestures

Combinations

a daily schedule
A daily schedule

3

Can be only pictures, only words, or a combination of the two.

Can be faded, but should be available

if the student experiences levels of stress

increasing the level of support needed.

determine communicative function of behavior
Determine communicative function of behavior

4

Be a detective! Watch for patterns in behavior, antecedents and results.

Seek input from EVERYONE who works

with the student.

Functional Behavior Analysis, done

properly, will help staff begin to understand

what the student is really saying.

shape don t eliminate self stimulatory behavior

5

Shape, don’t eliminate, self-stimulatory behavior

If student is making noise (clicking, tapping pencil), try providing the same sensory input in a more appropriate way.

Recognize when the student is exhibiting

a need for sensory stimulation.

slide21

Allow student to hold something (if needed) during structured large group activities.

Teach student to recognize and

request sensory stimulation.

Allow student to choose a safe area

in the room which they find calming.

some activities that will provide sensory stimulation
Some activities that will provide sensory stimulation…..

Chewing, which is helpful in organizing the brain

Alphabet letters, words and

numbers are calming

Smells can help to alert or calm

slide23

Incorporate music and motor movements into instruction as much as possible.

Get a rocking chair,

exercise bicycle and

mini-trampoline

for the classroom!

Remember: Each student has their own unique sensory diet!

slide24

6

Plan for generalization

Provide instruction in the typical environment whenever possible- if the skill is learned where it will be used, the work is cut in half!

When it cannot be learned where it will

be used, provide as many elements of

the typical environment as possible

(lighting, noise, physical layout, etc.),

and transition training.

slide25

7

Identify reinforcers

Put on your detective hat again!

Observe, observe, observe

Identify things which seem to calm the student:

movement patterns

response to auditory stimuli

visual preference

And………

Ask the student!!!

slide26

8

Frequent choice-making

Creates a sense of control

Allows the student to choose activities

which enhance feelings of safety

Strengthen the student’s motivation to

increase communication skills!

slide27

9

Don’t talk too much!

Many people with autism are easily overwhelmed with sensory information.

Since we believe many people with

autism are highly visual in nature,

the verbal input may actually decrease

their ability to process the visual input.

slide28
Reduce “ancillary” words….

“Just the facts, ma’am!’

Try reducing directions to just the

key informational words-

who, what, when, where, why, etc.

slide29

10

Evaluate, Evaluate, Evaluate

Just as children change, their responses change. Weather, physical state, emotional state- all play a part.

Observe and record responses to

every strategy attempted to determine

best practice for this student.

slide30

Always have a backup plan (or two or three!) in your bag of tricks!

Document results of your evaluation-

you will not be the only person

to use the information!

slide31

Ten Considerations for

Students with Asperger Syndrome

slide32

1

Structure Seat Arrangement

Students with Asperger Syndrome

are easy targets for Bullies

Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

good seating choices
Good Seating Choices

Next to a “model” student

Near the teacher

A quieter area of the class

Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

group work
Group Work

2

The characteristics of students with AS can make group work challenging and sometimes horrible experiences.

Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

slide35

Some Ideas about Group Work

Avoid self-selection

Teach all students how to function

in a group

Suggest tasks or roles

Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

slide36

3

Make your Classroom a

Caring Community

Model and praise respect and caring

Zero tolerance for unkind remarks or actions

slide37

4

Use Visual Supports

Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

slide38

Sequences

Calendars

Schedule

Class jobs

Space

Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

slide39

4

Use Organizational Supports

Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

slide40

Graphic organizers

Break assignments down into steps

Examples of expectations

Outlines and guided notes

Organized notebooks

Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

Illinois Autism/PDD Training and Technical Assistance Project

slide43

5

Prepare forChange

slide44

Clearly stated and posted class rules

Private conversation

Signal

Be an interpreter

slide45

Reduce Stress

Related Activities

6

Many students with AS can

become easily overwhelmed

slide46

Ear plugs or headphones

Alternative activity for difficult events

A designated support person/place

slide47

Coping Cards

Take 2 deep breaths

with your eyes closed

Press your hands together

and count to 10 slowly

slide48

Feeling Anxious

All people feel anxious now and then.

It is acceptable to feel anxious. Our bodies,

thoughts and actions can tell us when we

are feeling anxious. Anxiety may look different

for different people. For some, they may feel it

in their stomach. When I feel overwhelmed with

noise in class or am sensitive to other’s touch,

that might tell me that I am feeling anxious. I

can use the relaxation techniques on my coping

cards.

Bixler, 2006

slide49

Incredible 5-Point Scale

Buron, K.D., & Cutis, M. (2003) The Incredible 5-Point Scale

slide50

7

“SAVE” the student

Students with AS do not have

internal social understanding

slide51

Label the comment

Matter – of – fact explanation

Use a peer “social translator”

slide52

Promote Positive

Peer Interaction

8

Direct toward structured activities

Avoid unstructured activities

Identify arenas where the student

can contribute

slide53

9

Capitalize on Special Interests

slide54

10

Teach The Hidden Curriculum

Myles, Trautman, Schelvan, 2004

slide55

Conversation Rules

Who you are with determines what you should talk about

When making conversation, avoid constantly telling others how good you are at something. This usually makes others avoid being around you.

Keep approximately an arms distance away from the person you are talking with

rules for class discussion
Rules for Class Discussion

No insults

Make on-topic remarks

Focus on speaker

Quiet mouth

Think about topic

slide58

Words that Mean the Same

PE Gym

Break Snack time

Complete Finished

Recess Outside

slide59

Just Good Teaching with a Bonus!

Best practices for students with ASD

Benefit other students as well