Environmentalism in Global Perspective. The First Wave Early responses to Industrialization. First Wave: 19 th Century. Response to industrialization Arose in Britain first Urban/rural relationship Coal, deforestation, enclosure movement Imperialism and industrialization
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The First Wave
Early responses to Industrialization
●Romantics: Rescralization of nature
- Cities as ecological parasites
- Agrarian self-sufficiency
John Ruskin, Edward Carpenter
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau
Q: Was Gandhi an environmentalist?
Q: What, if anything, ties together these strands of environmentalism?