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7CD Variation and feeding relationships. Try to match the card with its definition. Now lets think about this classroom …. HW Booklet. Adaptations. What are adaptations? Name an animal adapted to a desert climate. Name a plant adapted to a desert climate.

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  • What are adaptations?
  • Name an animal adapted to a desert climate.
  • Name a plant adapted to a desert climate.
  • Name 2 animals adapted to an arctic climate.

Adaptation is a special characteristic that allows an organism to survive in a particular environment.

Adaptations may be:

  • physical appearance (morphology)
  • internal systems (physiology)
  • something an organism does (behaviour)
marine habitat
Marine Habitat
  • Seas and oceans
  • Salty water
  • Warm and cold water
a shark s general adaptations
A Shark’s General Adaptations

streamlined shapeto reduce friction when moving through water

gills have alarge surface areaso that oxygen can be

extracted from the surrounding water

finsprovide stability, power and control

What are a shark’s general adaptations to life in an aquatic environment?




a shark s specific adaptations
A Shark’s Specific Adaptations

specialised sense organscan detect the sound, movement and electrical fields of other organisms

highly sensitive sense of smellthat can detect drops of blood from miles away

lots ofvery sharp teeththat are constantly replaced

silver colouringunderneath acts as camouflage

What are a shark’s specific adaptations to life as an aquatic predator?





How many different types of habitat

can you think of?

Make a list.

  • Arctic
  • Desert: hot & cold
  • Woodland / forest
  • River / lake
  • Tropical rainforest
  • Grasslands
  • Rocky
  • Bogs / marshes
  • Urban (gardens / parks) / farmland
cold climates
Cold climates


  • arctic winter can dip to -51oC
  • warmest month is between 10oC and 0oC
  • Often permanent snow & ice
list as many adaptations to the cold climate as you can
List as many adaptations to the cold climate as you can:
  • Thick oily fur coats
  • Layers of blubber under the skin
  • May change colour in the summer
  • Small ears
  • Large furry feet
  • Often longer snout
  • Rounded body shape
body shape
Body Shape

Have fat, round body shapes with short legs.

Why is this important?

hot desert climates
Hot Desert Climates


  • Can reach 45 – 50oC during the day
  • Can fall below 0oC at night
  • Less than 25cm rain a year
list as many adaptations to the desert climate that you can
List as many adaptations to the desert climate that you can:
  • Large thin ears
  • Little body fat
  • Thin silky fur
  • Long limbs to help spread the heat
  • They often are only active at night
  • More elongated body shape
  • If a polar bear lived in a desert:
  • What colour would the polar bear be so it was camouflage?
  • Would it still have thick fir?
  • What would it eat?
compare these two animals
Compare these two animals…

Desert Fox Arctic Fox

Draw a table to compare their adaptations to their environments.

plants in cold climates
Plants in Cold Climates


  • ‘land of the midnight sun’

Cold all year except for short period over the summer

No trees

  • temperature range = - 54 to 21° C

Alaska, Siberia, Scandinavia


Arctic Willow



Arctic flower

arctic plant adaptations
Arctic plant adaptations
  • Plants are small - usually less than 30cm tall to avoid wind
  • Plants are dark - helps them absorb solar heat.
  • Small waxy leaves / needles
  • Some plants are covered with hair
  • Some plants grow in clumps for protection
  • Some plants have dish-like flowers that follow the sun
  • many trees are evergreen
  • many trees have needle-like leaves to lose less water
  • waxy coating on needles
  • needles are dark in colour
  • trees have branches that droop downward
plants in dry climates
Plants in Dry Climates


Can you think of any?

Make a list.

Spines to protect from being eaten
  • Plants slower growing so require less energy   
  • Flowers that open at night lure pollinators who tend to be active during the night
  • Hair help shade the plant, reducing water loss

Some plants store water in their stems or leaves = succulents

  • Some plants have no leaves
  • Long root systems spread out wide or go deep into the ground to absorb water
  • Scientists investigated two types of violet plants. One was found more frequently in shade, the shade violet. The other was found more frequently in sunny places, the sun violet.


a) Which violet is which? Give a reason for your choice. [4]

A = _____________________________________________________________________________

B = _____________________________________________________________________________


The number of violets in an area of woodland were counted before and after a large number of trees were removed. The results are shown below.

i) State how light conditions would have changed when the trees were removed. [1]


(ii) Which of the plants survived better before the trees were removed? [1]


(iii) What happened to the number of these plants after the trees were removed? [1]



(i) From the table, make a bar chart to show the information for sun violets. [4]

  • (ii) How would you expect the number of sun violets to change in future if more trees were removed? [1]
  • __________________________________________________________________________________
  •  Total: 12 marks
food chains and webs
Food chains and webs
  • Which way do the arrows go in food chains?
  • What do thearrows show in foodchains?
  • Giveanexample of a foodchain.
  • Whatis a food web?
  • What is the source of almost all energy on earth?
  • Where do producers get their energy from?
  • Where do consumers get their energy from?
  • Whatisvariation?
  • Whyistherevariation of organisms of thesametype? (species)
  • Why are we similar toourparents?

Meet our Mr Men

And our Little Misses

Now lets meet their children!

what did we learn from this
What did we learn from this?
  • Children inherit features from their parents
  • If two parents have a certain characteristic then their child may show it even more (e.g. Mr Small + Little Miss Tiny = Mr Very Small!)
  • Some things such as glasses, scars and muscles we get from our environment, they are not inherited.
genetic information
Genetic information
  • The instructions that make up a plant or animal comes from their parents.
  • ½ comes from the sperm and ½ from the egg
  • These instructions are found in the nucleus of the cells.
  • The instructions for each characteristic are called GENES.

We saw that when Mr Small and Little Miss Tiny produced a child it was even smaller.

What would happen if Mr Very Small had a child with Little Miss Miniscule??


Large fruited Dad

Large fruited Mum

Very large fruited child!

This is called selective breeding and can be used to make larger animals and crops that produce more fruit


Lets see what you’ve learned:

  • Farmer Hemming wants to breed cows that are large and meaty so that he can sell them for more.
  • What advice would you give him in order to produce larger cows?
  • 2. He can’t seem to breed cows with nose rings! Why not?
  • 3. How many chromosomes are in your cells?
  • Whatisclassification?
  • What are thefivemainclasses of animals? Writethecharacteristics of each.
  • Whatis a key?
now take 6 items from your pencil case
Nowtake 6 itemsfromyourpencil case

Whatquestions can weasktohelpidentifytheitem?

Nowmake a keywiththepersonnexttoyou.