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Aim: What events led to the start of the Spanish-American War? Do Now Hand in your HW. Pick up note sheet and answer the questions. Look at HW board for tonight’s assignment.
Objectives • Students will be able to understand how and why the United States grew during the 19th Century. • Students will be able to recognize that American territorial growth had widespread economic, political and social impacts both home and abroad. • To understand the relative importance of American domestic and foreign policies over time.
2. The Spanish American War • As you have seen from the last lesson, our interest in foreign affairs kept growing in the late 1800s. • By the 1890s, the United States became a major industrial nation. • By 1900, the United States became an empire after defeating the Spanish in the Spanish-American War.
Question #1 • What major event made the United States turn from an industrial power to an empire? • The event which turned the US into an empire was the Spanish-American War.
2.1 Cuba • The major cause of the Spanish-American War centered around the events on the island nation of Cuba. (Cuba sits 90 miles SW of Key West, Florida and is run by a dictator named Fidel Castro, he, you will know about later.) • By the late 1800s, the Spanish, who you know at one time was the powerful nation in the world, like 300 years earlier, was now weakened.
By the end of the 1800s, the only possessions left in the Spanish Empire were Cuba and Puerto Rico. • Cuba, with its close proximity to the US, knew of both the Haitian and Latin American Revolutions of the 1800s and just like the US, the Cubans revolted in 1868, but were put down by the Spanish. • In the 1890s, the Cubans tried again, this time with some back-up….the United States
In 1895, the Cubans tried to revolt against Spain a second time. • The Spanish, under General Weyler moved the Cubans into relocation camps because the Spanish feared the Cubans were helping the revolters. • Thousands of Cubans died as a result of the Spanish policy of relocations. • Americans became interested when their business investments were threatened.
The American people found out about the events in Cuba through newspapers. • The biggest newspapers in New York, William Randolph Hearst’s Journal and Joseph Pulitzer’s World competed with one another to sell newspapers. • Their newspapers told of the shocking cruelty and horrific conditions caused by Spanish rule in Cuba.
This kind of reporting became known as yellow journalism. This journalism still exists with shows like TMZ, Entertainment, Inside Edition, Access Hollywood. • The newspaper reports shocked Americans . People began to think of reasons to go to war against the Spanish.
Yellow Journalism William Randolph Hearst Joseph Pulitzer Hearst to Fredrick Remington: “You furnish the pictures and I’ll furnish the war.”
Americans began to desire war with Spain when it was discovered that their foreign minister, Enrique Dupuy de Lome, wrote a letter stating that American President William McKinley was a poor politician and a crowd pleaser. • This letter was published in newspapers stirring up more anger against the Spanish.
Enrique Dupuy de Lome Dupuy de Lôme, SpanishAmbassador to the U.S. Criticized PresidentMcKinley as weak and abidder for the admirationof the crowd, besidesbeing a would-be politicianwho tries to leave a dooropen behind himself whilekeeping on good termswith the jingoes of hisparty.
The final straw came on February 15, 1898, when the USS Maine was blown up in Havana harbor. • No one knew for sure what caused the explosion, but with the yellow journalism of Hearst and Pulitzer, the Spanish were immediately blamed for the event. • Just like the 9/11 bumper stickers and shirts commemorating the tragedy, people shouted “Remember the Maine!!!” to show support to the 250 men lost in the explosion.
Remember the Maine!!! Political Cartoon Funeral in Havana for those who died on the Boat.
On April 24, 1898, the United States Congress authorized the decision to attack Spain. • William McKinley declares that goals were to recognize the independence of Cuba, remove Spanish forces from the island and finally, at the end of the war, the United States would pass the Teller Amendment, which would create a government of Cuban consisting of only Cubans. • The United States had been preparing because they were already blockading Cuba.
Question #2 • What is yellow journalism and which two American publishers used this journalism to sell newspapers? • Yellow journalism focused on telling the most shocking news stories occurring in Cuba. The two publishers who used yellow journalism were Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst.
Question #3 • The De Lome Letter and the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine led the United States and President McKinley to take what action against Spain? • On April 24, 1898, the United States declared war on Spain and the Spanish-American War began.
2.2 The Course of the War • The Spanish American War brought the United States into its first foreign conflict since the Mexican War of 1846. • The United States and Spain were both unprepared to fight. • However, the United States had a large navy which would be the major advantage in the war.
The war is fought in Cuba, the Philippines and Puerto Rico. • The war is insignificant with a few major battles and a death toll of 379.
The Philippines is the only area in the war that sees actual fighting. (For those of you who don’t know where the Philippines are-they are southeast of China and are a series of islands like Hawaii.) • The islands were also part of the declining Spanish empire. • Two months before the war, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt ordered Commodore George Dewey to sail to the Philippines.
On May 1, 1898, the United States Navy entered Manila (the big city), destroyed the Spanish navy and by August of 1898, the United States attacked Manila and invaded the Philippines. • Soon after the invasion began, the Spanish surrendered Manila.
As some of our forces were attacking the Philippines, 17,000 of our soldiers were preparing to invade the island of Cuba. • With very few Spanish forces on the island, the United States military won two important battles-one at El Caney and one at San Juan Hill.
The interesting tidbit of information about San Juan Hill is that the charge was led by Theodore Roosevelt, who resigned his position in government to fight in the war. • As a lieutenant colonel, Roosevelt recruited a few people to join his regiment called the Rough Riders, people he had met while living the western United States. • Soon after the arrival of the Rough Riders, the United States military took Cuba.
Theodore Roosevelt • Assistant Secretary of the Navy in the McKinley administration. • Imperialist and American nationalist. • Criticized PresidentMcKinley as having the backbone of a chocolate éclair! • Resigns his position to fight in Cuba.
The Rough Riders Stop, drop, open up shop. Yo! Oh! That’s how Rough Riders roll!! Oops…that’s this guy’s Ruff Ryders
There was also fighting on the island of Puerto Rico, which was also possessed by the Spanish in the late 1800s. • Like the Cubans and the Filipinos, Puerto Rican rebels began attacking the Spanish and were led by Ramon EmeterioBetances, who although could not defeat the Spanish, got the United States to invade. • In July 1898, the United States and the Spanish signed an armistice-an agreement to stop the fighting.
Question #4 • Where did the first fighting take place and who was the hero of the fighting? • The first fighting in the Spanish-American War began in the Philippines. The hero in this area was Admiral George Dewey who defeated the Spanish in Manila harbor.
Question #5 • What important battles occurred in Cuba? • The two most important battles were El Carney and San Juan Hill.
Question #5 • Who were the Rough Riders? • The Rough Riders were an infantry of middle-to-upper class Americans who were led by Theodore Roosevelt, who would use this triumph to become vice president and then president.
Question #6 • Who led the Puerto Rican rebels in their fight against the Spanish? • Ramon Emeterio Betances
2.3 The Treaty of Paris • In October 1898, the United States and the Spanish met to discuss the treaty to end the Spanish American War. • None of the representatives from the Philippines, Puerto Rico or Cuba were asked to attend the meetings. • According to the terms of the Treaty of Paris, Spain granted Cuba independence under the protectorate of the United States. (Cuba was never independent.)
Puerto Rico, Guam and other islands in the Pacific Ocean were given to the United States as war payments. • President William McKinley demanded the Spanish give up the Philippines. • They did, they sold the island nation to the United States for $20,000,000. (FYI, A-Rod makes more in a season than this land purchase.)
On February 6, 1899, the United States Senate ratified the treaty. • The United States now possessed islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific. • These nations would satisfy our need to expand as an industrial nation and by 1900…. • The United States became an empire like the nations of Western Europe.
Question 7 • How did the United States acquire Guam and Puerto Rico? The Philippines? • Guam and Puerto Rico were acquired from Spain when the Treaty of Paris was signed. The Philippines were bought from Spain for 20 million dollars.