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Advanced Behavioral Neuroscience PSY 525 PowerPoint Presentation
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Advanced Behavioral Neuroscience PSY 525

Advanced Behavioral Neuroscience PSY 525

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Advanced Behavioral Neuroscience PSY 525

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  1. AdvancedBehavioralNeurosciencePSY 525 Lecture 1

  2. Neuroscience • Scientific study of the nervous system • Interdisciplinary Chemistry Physics Genetics Physiological Psychology ~

  3. Behavioral Neuroscience • Alternate names: • Physiological Psychology, Biopsychology, Psychobiology, etc. • Controlled manipulation of nervous system of animal subjects • Focus on behavior ~

  4. The Mind/Body Problem • Nature of their relationship • DONOR OR RECIPIENT? • in a heart transplant operation? • in a brain transplant operation? ~

  5. The Mind/Brain Problem • Prehistoric psychosurgery • Evidence from 10,000 years ago • Trepanation • Deliberate opening of skull ~

  6. The Mind/Brain Problem • DUALISM • mind & brain fundamentally different • mind (soul?) is extra corporeal • Rene Descartes • interactionism • pineal gland ~

  7. The Mind/Brain Problem: Dualism • Sir John Eccles • Nobel Prize (1963) • Neuroscientist • supplemental motor area • Fundamental problem... • How do physical and nonphysical systems interact? ~

  8. The Mind/Brain Problem • MONISM • operations of brain ---> mental events • Fundamental problem • How can a physical system produce mental states? ~

  9. The Mind/Brain Problem • Consciousness • unique property of brains? • Or could it exist in other entities? • Livers? • Computers? ~

  10. Relationship Between Brain & Behavior • Descartes • Mechanical statues • reflexes • Luigi Galvani • electrically stimulated frog leg ~

  11. Relationship Between Brain & Behavior • Aggregate field view • brain acts a single unit • Cellular connectionism • individual neurons organized in functional groups • have specific connections • specialized function of brain regions ~

  12. Relationship Between Brain & Behavior • Francis Gall • phrenology • localized functions ~

  13. Relationship Between Brain & Behavior • Pierre Flourens • brain ablation • studied effects on behavior • aggregate field view ~

  14. Relationship Between Brain & Behavior • Broca’s Aphasia • Left frontal lobe damage • Fluency deficits • Wernicke’s Aphasia • left temporal lobe damage • impaired comprehension • Distributed processing ~

  15. Relationship Between Brain & Behavior • Fritsch & Hitzig • Electrical stimulation of brain • muscle movements • Hermann von Helmholtz • speed of conduction of nerve impulse • Golgi & Ramon y Cajal • Synctium vs. Neuron Doctrine ~

  16. Experimental Methods

  17. Experimental Ablation • Remove part of brain • Observe effect on behavior • Karl Lashley • search for the ingram • Clinical Neuropsychology • Paul Broca • studied patients with brain damage ~

  18. New Experimental Techniques • Invasive Electrical Stimulation of the Brain (ESB) • Noninvasive imaging • anatomy • physiology • Genetic Techniques ~

  19. CAT Scan • Computerized Axial Tomography • anatomy • x-rays • computer assembles ~

  20. MRI • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • anatomy • higher resolution than CAT • spinning H atoms ~

  21. PET Scan • Positron Emission Tomography • metabolic activity • 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) • radioactive • regional Cerebral Blood Flow • rCBF ~

  22. Brain Imaging: fMRI • Functional MRI • detects increases in oxygen use • much better resolution • spatial & temporal ~

  23. Knock-out Mice • Genes: • blueprint for proteins • Disable gene ---> no protein • evaluate effect on behavior ~

  24. IF THE HUMAN BRAIN WERE SO SIMPLE THAT WE COULD UNDERSTAND IT, WE WOULD BE SO SIMPLE THAT WE COULDN’T.