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CS 525 Advanced Distributed Systems Spring 2010. Yeah! That’s what I’d like to know. Indranil Gupta (Indy) Lecture 2 What(’s in) the Cloud? January 21, 2010. 1. All Slides © IG. Clouds are Water Vapor. Oracle has a Cloud Computing Center. And yet…

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Cs 525 advanced distributed systems spring 2010 l.jpg

CS 525 Advanced Distributed SystemsSpring 2010

Yeah! That’s what I’d like to know.

Indranil Gupta (Indy)

Lecture 2

What(’s in) the Cloud?

January 21, 2010


All Slides © IG

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Clouds are Water Vapor

Oracle has a Cloud Computing Center.

And yet…

Larry Ellison’s Rant on Cloud Computing


The hype l.jpg
The Hype!

Gartner - Cloud computing revenue will soar faster than expected and will exceed $150 billion within five years.

Forrester - Cloud-Based Email Is Often Cheaper Than On-Premise Email

Vivek Kundra, CTO of Obama Government: “Growing adoption of cloud computing could improve data sharing and promote collaboration among federal, state and local governments.” E.g: fedbizopps.gov

Merrill Lynch: “By 2011 the volume of cloud computing market opportunity would amount to $160bn, including $95bn in business and productivity apps (email, office, CRM, etc.) and $65bn in online advertising.”

IDC: “Spending on IT cloud services will triple in the next 5 years, reaching $42 billion and capturing 25% of IT spending growth in 2012.”


Sources: http://www.infosysblogs.com/cloudcomputing/2009/08/the_cloud_computing_quotes.htm and http://www.mytestbox.com

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Ingo Elfering, Vice President of Information Technology Strategy, GlaxoSmithKline:“With Online Services, we are able to reduce our IT operational costs by roughly 30% of what we’re spending now and introduce a variable cost subscription model for these technologies that allows us to more rapidly scale or divest our investment as necessary as we undergo a transformational change in the pharmaceutical industry”

Jim Swartz, CIO, Sybase: “At Sybase, a private cloud of virtual servers inside its data centre has saved nearly $US2 million annually since 2006, Swartz says, because the company can share computing power and storage resources across servers.”

Dave Power, Associate Information Consultant at Eli Lilly and Company: “With AWS, Powers said, a new server can be up and running in three minutes (it used to take Eli Lilly seven and a half weeks to deploy a server internally) and a 64-node Linux cluster can be online in five minutes (compared with three months internally). The deployment time is really what impressed us. It's just shy of instantaneous."


Sources: http://www.infosysblogs.com/cloudcomputing/2009/08/the_cloud_computing_quotes.htm and http://www.mytestbox.com

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What is a Cloud? me what

  • It’s a cluster! It’s a supercomputer! It’s a datastore!

  • It’s superman!

  • None of the above

  • All of the above

  • Cloud = Lots of storage + compute cycles nearby

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What is a Cloud? me what

  • A single-site cloud (aka “Datacenter”) consists of

    • Compute nodes (split into racks)

    • Switches, connecting the racks

    • A network topology, e.g., hierarchical

    • Storage (backend) nodes connected to the network

    • Front-end for submitting jobs

    • Services: physical resource set, software services

  • A geographically distributed cloud consists of

    • Multiple such sites

    • Each site perhaps with a different structure and services

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A Sample Cloud Topology me what

Core Switch

Top of the Rack Switch



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Scale of Industry Datacenters me what

  • Microsoft [NYTimes, 2008]

    • 150,000 machines

    • Growth rate of 10,000 per month

    • Largest datacenter: 48,000 machines

    • 80,000 total running Bing

  • Yahoo! [Hadoop Summit, 2009]

    • 25,000 machines

    • Split into clusters of 4000

  • AWS EC2 (Oct 2009)

    • 40,000 machines

    • 8 cores/machine

  • Google

    • (Rumored) several hundreds of thousands of machines

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OK, they are massive. But it is still called a “cluster”! And that’s not a new concept!

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“A Cloudy History of Time” “cluster”! And that’s not a new concept!© IG 2010

The first datacenters!



Timesharing Companies & Data Processing Industry








(not distributed!)


Peer to peer



Clouds and datacenters

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“A Cloudy History of Time” “cluster”! And that’s not a new concept!© IG 2010

First large datacenters: ENIAC, ORDVAC, ILLIAC

Many used vacuum tubes and mechanical relays

Berkeley NOW Project


Server Farms (e.g., Oceano)

  • P2P Systems (90s-00s)

  • Many Millions of users

  • Many GB per day

Data Processing Industry

- 1968: $70 M. 1978: $3.15 Billion.

  • Timesharing Industry (1975):

  • Market Share: Honeywell 34%, IBM 15%,

  • Xerox 10%, CDC 10%, DEC 10%, UNIVAC 10%

  • Honeywell 6000 & 635, IBM 370/168,

  • Xerox 940 & Sigma 9, DEC PDP-10, UNIVAC 1108


  • Grids (1980s-2000s):

  • GriPhyN (1970s-80s)

  • Open Science Grid and Lambda Rail (2000s)

  • Globus & other standards (1990s-2000s)

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Why did all of this happen? “cluster”! And that’s not a new concept!

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Trends: Technology “cluster”! And that’s not a new concept!

  • Doubling Periods – storage: 12 mos, bandwidth: 9 mos, and (what law is this?) cpu speed: 18 mos

  • Then and Now


    • 1985: mostly 56Kbps links nationwide

    • 2004: 155 Mbps links widespread

      Disk capacity

    • Today’s PCs have 100GBs, same as a 1990 supercomputer

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Trends: Users “cluster”! And that’s not a new concept!

  • Then and Now


    • 1990: were running small single-molecule simulations

    • 2004: want to calculate structures of complex macromolecules, want to screen thousands of drug candidates, sequence very complex genomes


    • 2008 onwards: CERN’s Large Hadron Collider will produce 700 MB/s or 15 PB/year

  • Trends in Technology and User Requirements: Independent or Symbiotic?

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Prophecies “cluster”! And that’s not a new concept!

In 1965, MIT's Fernando Corbató and the other designers of the Multics operating system envisioned a computer facility operating “like a power company or water company”.

Plug your thin client into the computing Utility

and Play your favorite Intensive Compute &

Communicate Application

  • [Have today’s clouds brought us closer to this reality?]

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So, clouds have been around for decades! But aside from massive scale what’s new about today’s cloud computing?!

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What(’s new) in Today’s Clouds? massive scale what’s new about

Three major features:

  • On-demand access: Pay-as-you-go, no upfront commitment.

    • Anyone can access it (e.g., Washington Post – Hillary Clinton example)

  • Data-intensive Nature: What was MBs has now become TBs.

    • Daily logs, forensics, Web data, etc.

    • Do you know the size of Wikipedia dump?

  • New Cloud Programming Paradigms: MapReduce/Hadoop, Pig Latin, DryadLinq, Swift, and many others.

    • High in accessibility and ease of programmability

      Combination of one or more of these gives rise to novel and unsolved distributed computing problems in cloud computing.

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I. On-demand access: massive scale what’s new about *aaS Classification

On-demand: renting a cab vs (previously) renting a car, or buying one. E.g.:

  • AWS Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2): $0.086-$1.16 per CPU hour

  • AWS Simple Storage Service (S3): $0.055-$0.15 per GB-month

  • HaaS: Hardware as a Service

    • You get access to barebones hardware machines, do whatever you want with them

    • Ex: Your own cluster, Emulab

  • IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service

    • You get access to flexible computing and storage infrastructure. Virtualization is one way of achieving this. Often said to subsume HaaS.

    • Ex: Amazon Web Services (AWS: EC2 and S3), Eucalyptus, Rightscale.

  • PaaS: Platform as a Service

    • You get access to flexible computing and storage infrastructure, coupled with a software platform (often tightly)

    • Ex: Google’s AppEngine

  • SaaS: Software as a Service

    • You get access to software services, when you need them. Often said to subsume SOA (Service Oriented Architectures).

    • Ex: Microsoft’s LiveMesh, MS Office on demand

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    II. Data-intensive Computing massive scale what’s new about

    • Computation-Intensive Computing

      • Example areas: MPI-based, High-performance computing, Grids

      • Typically run on supercomputers (e.g., NCSA Blue Waters)

    • Data-Intensive

      • Typically store data at datacenters

      • Use compute nodes nearby

      • Compute nodes run computation services

    • In data-intensive computing, the focus shifts from computation to the data: CPU utilization no longer the most important resource metric

    • Problem areas include

      • Distributed systems

      • Middleware

      • OS

      • Storage

      • Networking

      • Security

      • Others

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    III. New Cloud Programming Paradigms massive scale what’s new about

    Dataflow programming frameworks

    • Google: MapReduce and Sawzall

    • Yahoo: Hadoop and Pig Latin

    • Microsoft: DryadLINQ

    • Facebook: Hive

    • Amazon: Elastic MapReduce service (pay-as-you-go)

    • Google (MapReduce)

      • Indexing: a chain of 24 MapReduce jobs

      • ~200K jobs processing 50PB/month (in 2006)

    • Yahoo! (Hadoop + Pig)

      • WebMap: a chain of 100 MapReduce jobs

      • 280 TB of data, 2500 nodes, 73 hours

    • Facebook (Hadoop + Hive)

      • ~300TB total, adding 2TB/day (in 2008)

      • 3K jobs processing 55TB/day

    • Similar numbers from other companies, e.g., Yieldex, eharmony.com, etc.

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    Two Categories of Clouds clouds?

    • Industrial Clouds

      • Can be either a (i) public cloud, or (ii) private cloud

      • Private clouds are accessible only to company employees

      • Public clouds provide service to any paying customer:

        • Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service): store arbitrary datasets ,pay per GB-onth stored

        • Amazon EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud): upload and run arbitrary images, pay per CPU hour used

        • Google AppEngine: develop applications within their appengine framework, upload data that will be imported into their format, and run

    • Academic Clouds

      • Allow researchers to innovate, deploy, and experiment

      • Google-IBM Cloud (U. Washington): run apps programmed atop Hadoop

      • Cloud Computing Testbed (CCT @ UIUC): first cloud testbed to support systems research. Runs: (i) apps programmed atop Hadoop and Pig, (ii) systems-level research on this first generation of cloud computing models (~HaaS), and (iii) Eucalyptus services (~AWS EC2). http://cloud.cs.illinois.edu

      • OpenCirrus: first federated cloud testbed. http://opencirrus.org

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    Academic Clouds clouds?

    • CCT = Cloud Computing Testbed

      • NSF infrastructure

      • Used by 10+ NSF projects, including several non-UIUC projects

      • Housed within Siebel Center (4th floor!)

      • Accessible to students of CS525!

        • Almost half of SP09 course used CCT for their projects

    • OpenCirrus = Federated Cloud Testbed

      • Contains CCT and other sites

    • If you need a CCT account for your CS525 experiment, let me know asap! There are a limited number of these available for CS525

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    CCT Hardware in more Detail clouds?

    • 128 compute nodes = 64+64

    • 500 TB & 1000+ shared cores

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    Goal of CCT clouds?: Support both Systems Research and Applications Researchin Data-intensive Distributed Computing

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    Accessing and Using CCT: clouds?

    Systems Partition (64-8 nodes):

    CentOS machines

    Dedicated access to a subset of machines (~ Emulab), with sudo access

    User accounts

    User requests # machines (<= 64) + storage quota (<= 30 TB)

    Machine allocation survives for 4 weeks, storage survives for 6 months (both extendible)

    Hadoop/Pig Partition and Service (64 nodes)

    Eucalyptus Partition (8 nodes)

    CCT Software Services

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    Accessing and Using CCT: clouds?

    Systems Partition (64-8 nodes)

    Hadoop/Pig Partition and Service (64 nodes):

    Looks like a regular shared Hadoop cluster service

    Users share 64 nodes. Individual nodes not directly reachable.

    4 slots per machine

    Several users report stable operation at 256 instances

    During Spring 09, 10+ projects running simultaneously

    User accounts

    User requests account + storage quota (<= 30 TB)

    Storage survives for 6 months (extendible)

    Eucalyptus Partition (8 nodes)

    CCT Software Services

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    Accessing and Using CCT: clouds?

    Systems Partition (64-8 nodes)

    Hadoop/Pig Partition and Service (64 nodes):

    Eucalyptus Partition (8 nodes):

    Based on open-source version of Eucalyptus from UCSB (Rich Wolski)

    Exports same interface as AWS EC2 and S3.

    CCT Software Services

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    Some Services running inside CCT clouds?

    ZFS: backend file system.

    Zenoss: Systems Monitoring. Shared with department’s other computing clusters

    Hadoop + HDFS

    Ability to make datasets publicly available

    How do users request an account: two-stage process (go to http://cloud.cs.illinois.edu )

    User account request – require background check

    Allocation request

    CCT Software Services

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    Open Cirrus Federation clouds?

    Founding 6 sites

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    Open Cirrus Federation clouds?

    First open federated cloud testbed

    Shared: research, applications, infrastructure (9*1,000 cores), data sets

    Global services: sign on, monitoring, store, etc., Federated clouds, meaning each is different


    KIT (de)







    IDA (sg)



    10 March 2014

    Grown to 9 sites, with more to come

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    OK, so that’s what a cloud looks like today. Now, suppose I want to start my own company, Devils Inc. Should I buy a cloud and own it, or should I outsource to a public cloud?

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    Next Week I want to start my own company, Devils Inc. Should I buy a cloud and own it, or should I outsource to a public cloud?

    • We will continue discussion of cloud computing

      • How MapReduce works

      • What is PlanetLab and Emulab

      • What is Grid computing

    • Then we will start to discuss Basics of P2P systems

    • Please read at least one paper from each session

    Administrative announcements l.jpg
    Administrative Announcements I want to start my own company, Devils Inc. Should I buy a cloud and own it, or should I outsource to a public cloud?

    Student-led paper presentations (see instructions on website)

    Start from February 11th

    Groups of up to 2 students present each class, responsible for a set of 3 “Main Papers” on a topic

    45 minute presentations (total) followed by discussion

    Set up appointment with me to show slides by 5 pm day prior to presentation

    Select your topic by Jan 31st

    List of papers is up on the website

    Each of the other students (non-presenters) expected to read the papers before class and turn in a one to two page review of the any two of the main set of papers (summary, comments, criticisms and possible future directions)

    Email review and bring in hardcopy before class


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    Announcements (contd.) I want to start my own company, Devils Inc. Should I buy a cloud and own it, or should I outsource to a public cloud?


    Groups of 2 (need not be same as presentation groups)

    We’ll start detailed discussions “soon” (a few classes into the student-led presentations)