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The multi-wavelength context of the future gamma-ray instruments: X-rays

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  1. Joint Discussion on the Highest-Energy Gamma-Ray Universe observed with Cherenkov Telescpe Arrays The multi-wavelength context of the future gamma-ray instruments: X-rays T. Dotani1), A. Bamba2), T. Fujinaga3,1) 1) ISAS/JAXA 2) Aoyama Gakuin Univ. 3) Tokyo Institute of Technology

  2. CONTENTS • Current/Future X-ray missions • NuSTAR, ASTROSAT, eROSITA, LOFT • ASTRO-H • Science cases : X-ray studies of VHE -ray sources • Shell-type SNRs • PWNe • Blazars

  3. 1-10 keV 1-10 TeV Complementarity of X-ray & VHE -ray bands Examples of SEDs from mono-energetic electrons/protons (Hinton, J.A., Hofmann, W., 2009. ARAA, 47, 523) E2dN/dE (erg/cm2/sec)

  4. CTA schedule 2010 2015 2020 Preparatory phase Construction/Deployment Partial Operation Full Operation

  5. X-ray satellites in these 10 years 2010 2015 2020 CTA Chandra XMM-Newton Suzaku NuSTAR ASTROSAT eROSITA/SRG ASTRO-H LOFT

  6. Integral NuSTAR NuSTAR • Launched successfully on June 13th, 2012. • The first satellite-based focusing X-ray telescope operating in the hard X-ray band, 5-80 keV. Leading institution : Caltech Mission life : 2 years baseline Deployable mast Focal length 10m

  7. ASTROSAT The first dedicated astronomy mission in India for multi-wavelength astronomy. Launch : 2013 Main instrument : large area proportional counter (6000 cm2) LAXPC

  8. eROSITA / SRG eROSITA will be the primary instrument on-board the Russian "Spectrum-Roentgen-Gamma" (SRG) satellite. Purpose : First imaging all-sky survey up to 10 keV Launch : 2013 Leading institution : MPE

  9. LOFT : the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing One of the four candidates selected for the next M-class mission in ESA’s Cosmic Vision. Current status : Assessment phase Launch period : 2020-2022 (if selected) Instruments • The Large Area Detector (10m2@8 keV) • The Wide Field Monitor

  10. ASTRO-H Suzaku 6.5m • Length :14 m • Weight : 2.7 t • Power : 3500 W • Telemetry : 8Mbps (X-band) • Data Recorder : 12 Gbits • Launch : 2014 • Life : 3 year (requirement) • 5 year (goal) 14m H2A

  11. ASTRO-H mission instruments

  12. Filter wheel

  13. SXS: cooling chain Life • 3 years with LHe • 2 more years without LHe

  14. SXS performance compared with existing observatories Figure of merit Effective area

  15. SXI: an X-ray CCD camera • 4 CCD chips with 31x31mm • Depletion layer: 200m • Type: Back-illumination • Operating temp.: -120 - -100 degC • Exposure time: 4 sec • FOV: 38x38 arcmin Engineering model Hood A focal plane assembly Frontend Electronics box SXI

  16. Hard X-ray telescopes & imagers HXT principle

  17. HXI: hard X-ray imagers principle BGO scintillaters Engineering model

  18. BGO fov SGD Fine collimator fov Principle Narrow field Compton camera AE Fine collimator Satellite side panel BGO BGO SGD Compton camera

  19. ASTRO-H sensitivities in hard X-ray band MeV keV GeV TeV 10-4 INTEGRAL Suzaku SGD SGD HXI CTA HXI 10-8 104 1010 1012 106 100 10 1000 Energy (eV) Energy (keV)

  20. VHE -ray sky Galactic (61): PWN (19), -ray binary (4), SNR(10), GC (1), Pulsar (1), OC (1), unID (24) Extra-galactic (46) : Blazar (37), FSRG (2), Radio galaxy (5), SB galaxy (2) http://www.mpp.mpg.de/~rwagner/sources/

  21. Origin of cosmic rays below ~1015 eV− Particle acceleration in shell type SNRs? − G347.3-0.5 (RX J1713.7-3946): shell-type SNR Model spectrum for the hadronic scenario TeV image with HESS Contours : ASCA Yuan, Q. et al. 2011, ApJ, 735, 120

  22. Acceleration in thin filaments G347.3-0.5 Chandra SN1006 Chandra Red : 0.5-0.91 keV Cyan : 0.91-1.34 keV Blue : 1.34-3.0 keV Uchiyama et al. 2007, Nature, 449, 576

  23. Expected image with A-H/HXI Structure of the particle acceleration site in the filaments may be studied with NuSTAR and A-H/HXI at an order of magnitude higher energies. Simulated image of A-H/SXI (9x9 arcmin2)

  24. Measuring the ion temperature in shell type SNR SN1006 NW shell : thermal X-rays Kinematic energy of shocked plasma Kinematic energy of unshocked plasma Thermal energy of shocked plasma Shock velocity is known (2890 km/s) Particle acceleration ASTRO-H SXS can measure the thermal energy (ion temp) of shocked plasma Measure the particle acceleration efficiency

  25. >3000 years 1000-3000 years <1000 years Evolution of particle acceleration in the shell-type SNRs Stefan Funk, August 5th 2011, TeVPA

  26. Evolution of Synchrotron X-rays in SNRs Synchrotron X-rays tends to drop for SNRs with >5pc. Radius : indicator of age Nakamura et al. 2012, ApJ, 746, 134

  27. Evolution of Synchrotron X-rays in SNRs Assumption (electrons) acceleration time = synchrotron cooling time TeV protons 0.1 cm-3 1 cm-3 Assumption (protons) Acceleration time = SNR age 5 cm-3 electrons

  28. Diffusion of energetic electrons in PWNe G18.0-0.7 (HESS J1825-137) : spectral steepening away from the pulsar Produced by S. Funk and O.C. de Jager for the H.E.S.S. collaboration

  29. An example of X-ray observations The Kookaburra complex HESS J1420-607 Suzaku X-ray image K3 PSR J1420-6048 (P=68ms) R1 & R2 HESS J1418-609 H.E.S.S. contours Rabbit

  30. Spatial dependence of the X-rays in the PWN Energy spectra tend to become softer according to the distance from the X-ray peaks (pulsars). Energy loss of electrons/positrons due to the synchrotron radiation (Compton scattering) as they propagate. K3 Rabbit

  31. Spatial dependence of the X-rays in the PWN (2) HESS J1846-029 (Kes75) HESS J1833-105 (G21.5-0.9) HESS J1747-281 (G0.9+0.1) HESS J1809-193 (G18.0-0.7) HESS J1825-137 HESS J1837-069 HESS J1804-216 HESS J1809-193 • Radio pulsar (82.7 ms) at the cross. • Spatial variation of the VHE photon index is suggested by H.E.S.S. HESS A A B B D C C D 2 2.5 Photon index

  32. Suzaku observations of HESS J1809-193 Suzaku 0.4-1 keV 2-10 keV • X-ray source at the position of the pulsar • Different spatial distribution between thermal (0.4-1 keV) and non-thermal X-ray emission. HESS Energy spectra were calculated for annular regions (A through D)

  33. HESS J1809-193 : spectral analysis Spectral model : Power-law + thin thermal X-ray emission NH = 7.1 ×1021 cm-2 kT = 0.18 keV Pulsar A B C D Far 1.5 2.0 Photon index No spatial dependence was found in the spectral shape

  34. HESS J1809-193 : spatial extent Measure the extension of non-thermal X-ray emission around the pulsar Suzaku 1 2-10 keV Relative intensity 0.5 pulsar 0 5 10 15 20 Distance from the pulsar (arcmin) Projected intensity profile in the rectangle region Fit with a gaussian + constant σ = 6’.8 ±1’.0 Pseudo-color map : 2-10 keV X-ray intensity Yellow contours : HESS image

  35. Spatial extent of the non-thermal emission Suzaku Chandra HESS J1825-137 PSR J1420-6049 σ = 3’.5 ±0’.4 σ = 1’.5 ±0’.4 ASCA Vela X MSH 15-52 Chandra σ = 23’.5 ±2’.6 σ = 1’.6 ±0’.1 35

  36. Spatial extent of the non-thermal emission Suzaku Kes 75 Chandra HESS J1718-385 σ = 0’.63 ±0’.05 σ = 4’.2±0’.5 G21.5-0.9 Chandra XMM-Newton HESS J1616-508 σ = 0’.91 ±0’.05 σ = 1’.8 ±0’.5

  37. Spatial extent of the non-thermal diffuse X-ray emission vs pulsar ages X-ray emitting electrons Energy loss time scale Accelerated electrons up to ~80 TeV can escape from the PWNe without losing most of the energies.

  38. VHE -ray sky Galactic (61): PWN (19), -ray binary (4), SNR(10), GC (1), Pulsar (1), OC (1), unID (24) Extra-galactic (46) : Blazar (37), FSRG (2), Radio galaxy (5), SB galaxy (2) http://www.mpp.mpg.de/~rwagner/sources/

  39. 1-10 TeV 1-10 keV X-ray band is suited to detect luminous FSRQs Multi-frequency studies of Blazars Blazar sequence X-ray GeV TeV Radio Optical Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (= FSRQ, e.g. PKS0528-134) ERC Sync SSC Low-frequency peaked BL Lac (= LBL e.g., 0716+714) High-frequency peaked BL Lac (= HBL e.g., Mrk421) Low-energy peak (Synchrotron) High-energy peak (Inverse Compton) LE HE Kataoka 02 Kubo+ 98

  40. HXI 100ks High power jets : Luminous FSRQ PKS 2149-306 Fermi LAT LX > 2x1047 erg/sec (>109 Msolar SMBH) The best-fit synchrotron-Compton model for PKS 2149-306. CTA The model is shifted to z~8. Astro-H can detect wide-band spectrum of effectively all the luminous FSRQs. Soft X-ray Hard X-ray Evolution of FSRQs Ghisellini et al. 2010, MNRAS, 405, 387

  41. CXB and contribution of the FSRQs FSRQs may explain the CXB at >500 keV solving the mystery of generation of the MeV background. FSRQs (double power-law is assumed) Seyfert-like AGNs Ajello, M. et al. 2009, ApJ, 699, 603

  42. Summary • ASTRO-H may be the only observatory-class X-ray satellite operating simultaneously with CTA. • Combining ASTRO-H and CTA data, we may be able to trace history of particle acceleration, acceleration efficiency, and diffusion of energetic particles in SNRs and PWNe. • HXI on board ASTRO-H may be powerful telescopes to observe luminous FSRQs, which are key to understand CXB in the MeV band.