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Geology 155

Geology 155

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Geology 155

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  1. Geology 155 Oceanography

  2. What is Oceanography?

  3. OceanographySubdisciplines • Geological • Physical • Chemical • Biological

  4. How Do the Oceans Impact Us? • Hurricane Katrina • Indonesia Tsunami

  5. Hurricane Katrina

  6. Hurricane Katrina

  7. 2004 Indonesia Tsunami http://asiantsunamisvideos/tsunamiphuket.wmv

  8. Indonesia Tsunami

  9. Gaining Knowledge of the Oceans • Early Voyages • Science for Voyaging • Age of Discovery • Voyaging for Science

  10. Early Voyages • Early navigation done by keeping constant view of land • Not much knowledge • Thought land was flat • Mostly land and not much water • Mythology was used to explain natural phenomena • Alexander the Great • First marine science library (3rd century BC) • Eratosthenese(230 BC) • Realized Earth was spherical • Looked at different angle of sun’s rays • Celestial navigation (astronomy, mathematics) • Hipparchus (127 BC) • Invented latitude and longitude

  11. Science for Voyaging • Polynesian Colonization • Vikings • Chinese

  12. The Age of Discovery • Prince Henry the Navigator • Christopher Columbus • Ferdinand Magellan

  13. Voyaging for Science • Establish British presence • Charted New Zealand, Australia, Hawaiian Islands • James Cook • Highly accurate charts used as late as WWII • Charles Darwin • Correctly determined how atolls and coral reefs form by volcanic activity HMS Endeavor

  14. Challenger ExpeditionModern Exploration • First Pure Scientific Expedition • Life was possible below 549 m (1800 ft) • Discovered 4,717 new species • Collected ocean water information • Temperature, salinity, and water density • Ocean current and sediment distribution

  15. 21st Century Technology Underwater • Sonar • Submersibles Satellite • MODIS • QuikSCAT • TRMM

  16. Ocean Facts • Average depth of the Pacific Ocean = 4,638 m • Average depth of the Atlantic Ocean = 3,872 m • About 70% of Earth’s surface is covered by water • Average temperature = 3.9°C (39.0°F) • Age of oceans = 4 billion years

  17. Hydrologic Cycle • Continuous cycle of how water moves through different reservoirs, or from ocean to air, onto land, to lakes and streams and groundwater back to the sky and ocean.

  18. Hypsographic Curve • Shows distribution of elevations and depths on Earth ( Know how to read graph)