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Levels of Organization. Quarter 2 : Molecules to Organisms http://prezi.com/ejsnwrjfwjux/? utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share. Levels of Organization. Biological Levels of Organization http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=28ueTHq_fLw. Population Community Ecosystem Biome

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levels of organization

Levels of Organization

Quarter 2 : Molecules to Organisms

http://prezi.com/ejsnwrjfwjux/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share

levels of organization1
Levels of Organization

Biological Levels of Organization http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=28ueTHq_fLw

Population

Community

Ecosystem

Biome

Biosphere

  • Atom
  • Molecule
  • Organelle
  • Cell
  • Tissue
  • Organ
  • System
  • Organism
atoms
Atoms
  • The basic unit of matter

(Matter = anything that has mass and takes up space)

  • There are three subatomic particles that are combined to make each atom.

* Proton (+)

* Neutron (o)

* Electron (-)move around nucleus in electron cloud

Nucleus (+)

Energy Levels

1st = 2

2nd = 8

3rd = 18

molecules
Molecules
  • When two or more atoms are combined a molecule is formed
  • When two or more atoms of different elements combine a compound is formed (CO₂)
we can describe the composition of compounds by using a chemical formula
We can describe the composition of compounds by using a chemical formula

H₂O

(2 atoms of hydrogen, 1 atom of oxygen)

C₆H₁₂O₆

(6 carbon, 12 hydrogen, 6 oxygen)

chemical bonds
Chemical Bonds
  • Bonds : a force that holds atoms together
    • Covalent Bonds
      • Forms when atoms share electrons
        • Share 2 = single bond
        • Share 4 = double bond
        • Share 6 = triple bond
      • Ex: water
slide9

Ionic Bonds

a. Formed when atoms lose or gain electrons

b. Creates electrically charged atoms called ions

(different number of protons/electrons)

* if atom loses electron = + ion

* if atom gains electron = - ion

c. Ions with opposite charges are attracted to each other.

slide10

Hydrogen Bonds

a. Form when the positive end of one molecules is attracted to the negative end of another molecules

b. Form without the interaction of electrons

c. Responsible for the cohesion of water

*allows raindrops to form or water to bead

d. Easily broken

vi acids bases ph
VI. Acids/Bases/pH
  • Acids – a solution with a high concentration of Hydrogen ions (H+)

B. Bases – a solution with a high concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-)

  • pH – means potential for hydrogen

pH can determine what type of organisms can live in an environment or what types of chemical reactions can take place

balancing equations
Balancing Equations

2 H₂ + O₂ → 2 H₂O

Steps to Solve Equation

1. write down elements on reactants side

2. write down elements on product side

3. write number of atoms for each element on each side

4. Begin adding coefficients to balance equation

organic chemistry
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
  • Organic chemistry is the study of compounds that contain bonds between carbon atoms
    • Carbon atoms have 4 valence electrons; therefore, each electron can join with electrons from another atom to form strong covalent bonds
    • Carbon can bond with:

* Hydrogen (H) * Phosphorus (P)

* Oxygen (O) * Carbon (C)

* Nitrogen (N) * Sulfur (S)

ii organic compounds found in all living things
II. Organic Compounds Found in All Living Things
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic acids
a carbohydrates
A. Carbohydrates
  • Made up of C, H, and O in a 1 : 2 : 1 ratio
  • Uses
    • Energy (quick)
    • Structural building blocks (cellulose – plant cell walls)
  • Sugars and Starches
    • Monosaccharides (one)
    • Disaccharides (two)
    • Polysaccharides (many)
monosaccharides
Monosaccharides
  • Simple sugar
  • Chemical formula: C₆H₁₂O₆
  • Ex: Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose are 3 isomers of a monosaccharide

= molecules with same chemical formula

but different structure

disaccharides
Disaccharides
  • A two-sugar molecule
  • When 2 carbohydrate monomers are joined, a hydrolysis reaction (removal of H₂O) takes place to form a disaccharide.
  • Chemical formula: C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁
  • Ex: glucose + galactose → Lactose
  • When disaccharides are used for energy, they are digested by enzymes that break them up into monosaccharides which are metabolized in the process of cellular respiration
slide18

Hydrolysis Reaction

glucose + galactose → Lactose

(C₆H₁₂O₆) + (C₆H₁₂O₆) - (H₂O) = C₁₂H₂₂O₁₁

  • Monomer = a single unit/molecule
  • To digest lactose (sugar in dairy), you need lactase enzyme
  • Lactose intolerant people can’t produce lactase
polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
  • Large macromolecules or polymers that can consist of hundreds or thousands of monomers (C₆H₁₀O₅)n
    • Starches (plant: corn & wheat)

a. Amylase (enzyme) breaks it down into monomers which are absorbed into the bloodstream to be used by the cells.

    • Glycogen (animal starches)

a. Stored in the liver and muscles when there is excess monosaccharides

    • Cellulose

a. Can not be digested = roughage

b lipids
B. Lipids
  • Made up mostly of C and H with some O
  • Uses:
    • Energy – 2x the amount of chemical energy per gram compared to carbohydrates
    • Making biological membranes

Ex: plasma membrane in cells

    • Water proof coverings in plants
    • Physical & thermal insulation to animals
slide21

Lipids are generally insoluable in water

  • Formed when a glycerol molecule (C₃H₅O₃) joins a fatty acid
    • Saturated fats form when each carbon atom in the fatty acid chain is joined to another carbon atom by a single covalent bond
      • Solid at room temperature
      • Ex: butter
slide22

Unsaturated fats form when there is a least one

carbon-carbon double bond

    • liquid at room temperature
    • Olive oil

c. Polyunsaturated fats form when there are two or more carbon-carbon double bonds

    • liquid at room temperature
    • Corn, sesame & peanut oil
c proteins
C. Proteins

1. Made up of C, H, O, and N

  • Uses:

a. Regulate cell processes and control reaction rates

b. Make up bulk of all solid material in the body (muscle, bone, skin, hair)

c. Transport substances in and out of cell

slide25

Proteins are polymers of amino acids

a. Amino acids are compounds with an amino group (NH₂) at

one end and a carboxyl group (COOH) at the other.

b. There are 20 different amino acids

c. Amino acids are joined together by peptide

bonds to form a dipeptide or a

polypeptide molecule

slide26

Enzymes are proteins that are formed during the process of protein synthesis

    • Enzymes are biological catalysts that control the rate of chemical reactions.
    • Each type of enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction.
    • Names of enzymes usually end in –ase and are named for the reaction they catalyze.

Example: lactase → lactose

protease → protein

d nucleic acids
D. Nucleic Acids
  • Made up of C, H, O, N, and P
  • Uses:

a. Store and transmit genetic information

b. Make proteins

  • Made up of nucleotides
      • 5 – Carbon sugar
      • Phosphate group
      • Nitrogenous base

4. Example: DNA and RNA