properties of water chapter 2 pages 18 47 n.
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Properties of Water Chapter 2 Pages 18-47. Marine Science Ms. Flick. Vocab. Basins Renewable resource Nonrenewable resource Overfishing Sublimation Freezing points Melting point Boiling point Variables Independent variable. Dependent variable Solvent Solute Solution Solubility

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vocab
Vocab
  • Basins
  • Renewable resource
  • Nonrenewable resource
  • Overfishing
  • Sublimation
  • Freezing points
  • Melting point
  • Boiling point
  • Variables
  • Independent variable
  • Dependent variable
  • Solvent
  • Solute
  • Solution
  • Solubility
  • Atom
  • Neutrons
  • Protons
  • Hydrogen bonding
  • Cohesion
vocab continued
Vocab Continued.
  • Hydrogen bonding
  • Cohesion
  • Surface tension
  • Salinity
  • Vaporization
  • Freezing
  • Condensation
  • Brackish
  • Estuaries
  • Neutral buoyancy
our oceans
Our Oceans
  • The ocean covers approximately 71% of Earth’s surface
  • Our planet’s ocean can be divided into four oceans:
    • The Pacific
    • The Atlantic
    • The Indian
    • The Arctic
  • Basins-large water covered areas between continents; commonly referred to as oceans
  • Earth’s ocean contains 97% of the water on Earth
  • That leaves only 3% of the planet’s water as fresh as opposed to salt
  • 2/3 of that freshwater is contained in ice in glaciers and sea ice caps in Earth’s polar regions
ocean s renewability
Ocean’s Renewability
  • The ocean is important for all living things and influences many of Earth’s processes
  • The ocean is a resource that replenishes itself naturally over relatively short periods of time
    • Renewable resource
  • Some resources, such as natural gas and minerals, are exhausted faster than they are naturally replaced
    • Nonrenewable resources
  • Just because the ocean is considered a renewable resource doesn’t mean everything in it is
    • Overfishing-humans extract fish at rates faster than they can reproduce making the food source no longer renewable
activity 1 procedure
Activity 1 Procedure
  • Prepare two beakers-1 w/ cold water, 1 w/ warm water
  • Measure and record the temperature of each
  • Place 15 drops of blue food coloring into the cold water and stir
  • What will happen if cold water (blue) from a pipette is added to the warm water carefully down the side of the beaker? Write down your hypothesis-if/then statement
  • Add droppers full of the cold blue water down the inside wall of the warm water beaker
  • Drop some on one side-then the opposite side
  • Note: the dropper tip should be placed immediately under the surface of the water
  • Write down your observations.
activity 2
Activity 2
  • Prepare 2 beakers-1 w/ warm water and 1 w/ ice cubes
  • Measure the temperature of each beaker’s contents and record
  • Place several ice cubes in the water
discussion
Discussion
  • How can you explain our observations of Activity 1?
  • What are the ice cubes made of?
  • In Activity 1 the cold water stayed on the bottom. If the ice is colder than the water would you expect it to float on the water?
  • What issues would their be in nature if ice did not float on water?
investigation 1 freezing melting and boiling
Investigation 1:Freezing, Melting, and Boiling

Follow the directions in your textbook on pages 23-26 to complete this investigation.

Write down your findings on your own sheet of paper.

investigation 2 surface tension
Investigation 2:Surface Tension

Follow the directions in your textbook on pages 26-27 to complete this investigation.

Write down your findings on your own sheet of paper.

investigation 3 floating and sinking
Investigation 3:Floating and Sinking

Follow the directions in your textbook on pages 28-29 to complete this investigation.

Write down your findings on your own sheet of paper.

investigation 4 solutions
Investigation 4:Solutions

Follow the directions in your textbook on pages 30-31 to complete this investigation.

Write down your findings on your own sheet of paper.

atoms
Atoms
  • Atom-the most basic particle of a unique element that has the properties of that element
  • Neutrons-no electrical charge
  • Protons-a +1 or a positive 1 charge
  • Around the dense nucleus of each unique atom is a cloud of tiny, negatively charged electrons
  • Look at figure 2.16-hydrogen atom
  • Look at figure 2.17-oxygen atom
  • Hydrogen and oxygen combine to make a water molecule
water molecules
Water Molecules
  • Look at figure 2.19-water molecules
  • Hydrogen bonding-the attraction between water molecules
  • Cohesion-the property of water making it attracted to other molecules of water via hydrogen bonding
  • It is cohesion that allows

water to form drops

  • Surface tension-the

attraction between

molecules at a liquid’s

surface

salinity
Salinity
  • Salinity-the measure of dissolved salts in water
  • Distilled water has no salinity
  • Water is considered fresh if it contains 1 part per thousand or less of salts
  • The average salinity of the ocean is 35 parts per thousand (35% salt)
ocean water
Ocean Water
  • Ocean water carries a lot of minerals
  • The minerals come from:
    • Land: freshwater in streams and rivers contains salts and flows into the ocean
    • Inside the Earth: volcanoes, vents, and other processes at the seafloor spew minerals from below Earth’s crust
    • Atmosphere: carried by wind and deposited into the ocean
phase changes
Phase Changes
  • Vaporization-

liquid to gas

  • Freezing-

liquid to solid

  • Condensation-

gas to liquid

  • Pure water boils at 100 degrees C
    • 212 degrees F
  • Pure water freezes at 0 degrees C
    • 32 degrees F
  • Salt water boils and becomes a gas at a slightly higher temperature than freshwater
  • Salt water freezes at a slightly lower temperature
freshwater and saltwater meet
Freshwater and Saltwater Meet
  • Brackish-water that is somewhere between salt and fresh
    • Margrove forests and salt marshes
  • Estuaries-where rivers meet the sea
    • Nurseries of the sea; provide home for many species of marine life
  • Plants and animals living here can tolerate wide ranges in salinity b/c their always changing
neutral buoyancy
Neutral Buoyancy
  • Some organisms float on top of the ocean
  • Others live near its bottom
  • Others make their homes throughout the water column
  • Organisms have features that assist them with floating and sinking or moving up and down-neutral buoyancy